Tag Archives: multidisciplinary

Creating comics with clients

By Devlyn McCreight February 1, 2018

Academic and clinical interest regarding the intersection of comics and health care is high right now, which is no surprise to readers of Counseling Today. The July 2017 issue of Counseling Today featured a cover story titled “‘Cultured’ counseling” that provided perspectives on the clinical utility of integrating pop culture (such as video games, movies and comic books) into counseling practice. Similarly, both the American Psychological Association and the American Medical Association have devoted time and journal space to covering the topic, signaling that mental health counselors are not alone in wanting to explore the positive impact that comics can have on delivery of services.

Case in point: The 2017 Comics & Medicine Conference was held this past June in Seattle. An eclectic cross section of cartoonists, medical doctors, mental health professionals, teachers, students and librarians from across the globe attended. The conference theme, “Access Points,” explored how comics can open new gateways to health care “because of its ability to provide a platform for marginalized voices.” Because this worldwide chorus of marginalized voices often includes people with mental health diagnoses and comorbid disorders, comics can also help bridge the gap between client and counselor when utilized correctly.

As the body of literature regarding the therapeutic value of comics grows, the question is raised: Can comics be used as an intervention apart from traditional bibliotherapy? The focus of this article is to explore the rationale for creating comics with clinical clients, gain guidance from practitioners who use comic creation as a direct intervention and provide resources for those who are interested in learning more.

Beyond bibliotherapy

In the fourth edition of the American Counseling Association’s Counseling Dictionary, the intervention bibliotherapy is defined as “generally understood to be the reading of selected literature to help individuals gain a better understanding of themselves and others as well as to produce at times a healing or helpful catharsis.”

The bulk of recent literature regarding comics and mental health has fallen squarely into the realm of bibliotherapy, focusing on using graphic novels and memoirs to help clients better understand their own challenges. Although strong clinical evidence exists to support using existing commercially available materials to help articulate client experiences, a growing number of health services practitioners are advocating that patients and clients begin writing and illustrating their own stories.

Ian Williams, a comics artist, writer and physician who co-founded the Graphic Medicine movement, has suggested that revisiting trauma using sequential art can provide a form of catharsis for the creator, citing examples of prominent figures in the graphic memoir field such as Art Spiegelman (Maus) and Katie Green (Lighter Than My Shadow). His assertion is that the combination of visual art and narrative structure allows clients to reauthor their experiences in ways that simply talking through them do not.

This same hypothesis was the driving force behind the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) using graphic novel software to assist combat veterans in dealing with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This initiative led to DARPA commissioning California-based software developer Kinection to design the Warrior Stories Platform for use with veterans.

Similarly, several public schools across the country have begun using online comic-creation software to help address ongoing behavioral issues for children with special needs. In addition, educators and social science researchers alike are using comic creation to help children tackle difficult real-world issues (such as making positive choices in the face of peer pressure), develop a more robust understanding of historical events (such as the Holocaust) and cultivate sound safety habits when interacting with friends and strangers.

As professionals from a multitude of disciplines create comics with others to help bridge the gap between educational content and personal experience, clinical mental health counselors can do the same with their clients.

The therapeutic act of creating comics

Scott McCloud, renowned cartoonist and educator, once defined comics as “images deployed in a sequence to tell a story graphically or convey information.” Given that comics are a storytelling medium, it is perhaps not surprising that the therapeutic act of creating comics falls under the scope of narrative therapy.

Narrative therapy is primarily concerned with the stories that clients have within them — those internalized beliefs formed by clients’ interactions with the various familial, social and cultural forces throughout their lifetime. Narrative therapies also place primary emphasis on the act of externalization of client issues. As Michael White and David Epston, the primary developers of narrative therapy, once famously surmised, “The person is not the problem, the problem is the problem.”

Externalization is used to help clients who overidentify with their problematic symptoms (“I am depressed”) begin to understand these experiences as distinct from their core self (“I am dealing with a really difficult depressive episode right now”). When I interviewed Katharine Houpt, an artist, licensed clinical professional counselor, board certified art therapist and lecturer at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, she shared that the main strength of creating comics with clients is that it fosters the externalization process: “The idea is that experiences can be overwhelming and can take up so much space that it’s helpful to externalize them, and [creating comics] literally puts a container around those experiences so you can put them away on a shelf, so to speak, and [the problems] are separated from the person.”

Having a physical representation of an internal experience can be valuable because the idea of containment is extremely important when dealing with sensitive parts of a client’s experience. Each panel in the comic sequence functions as a figurative container for potentially overwhelming psychic material, allowing clients to approach the issue with a feeling of control or mastery that might elude them otherwise. The comic format also allows clients to represent themselves, others and even their disorders pictorially through the creation of avatars.

Working with clients to graphically depict interactions between themselves and problematic symptoms can help them uncover new insights. As with any other type of therapeutic intervention, it is important to choose comic-making directives that reflect an understanding of individual clients, their struggles and what resources they bring to the situation. “An example of something I’ve done recently is ask a client to create characters to have a dialogue based on the person’s conflicting thoughts when trying to make a decision,” Houpt says. “But again, this was done with careful consideration of the person’s history, possible responses, coping tools, motivation, ability, etc.”

Suggestions and considerations

Possessing a clear sense of best practices when creating comics (or any other type of art) with clients can help clinicians avoid therapeutic pitfalls and unintended confidentiality issues and create a safe space for the creative process. What follows are suggestions and considerations for therapists who are interested in beginning to integrate comic creation into clinical practice.

Create a functional space. Rebecca Bloom, a board-certified art therapist and licensed mental health counselor who practices in Washington state, suggested that clinicians try making art themselves in client spaces before introducing any interventions into practice. “I tell everyone that comes to my workshop, ‘Sit where the client will sit and try and make art in that spot.’ People inevitably come back and say, ‘Oh, well, it’s impossible to make art there.’ So I respond, ‘Great, now figure out how it would be more possible. Do the art supplies need to be closer? Do you need a lap desk? Do you need a coffee table that’s easy to use?’”

If the space available is not amenable for making art, this might require an investment in additional furniture that could be cost prohibitive. If an existing space and furnishings can be rearranged to accommodate the activity, it is also important to think through whether the space can remain in that configuration for clients who are not making art. If it can’t, it might be necessary to reserve time to reset the office between client sessions.

Remember, art is messy. Another consideration in determining whether a space is appropriate for incorporating any art making is whether the space is shared with other practitioners. “Art takes a little thinking through,” Bloom explained. “In some settings, it’s really hard, like for people who are in institutional settings. … Art is really messy. So, if there’s no way to be messy where you are, that’s going be a little problematic for art making.”

This holds true for comic creation too. India ink can be spilled, markers can be dropped onto couches, and erasers can leave behind rubberized crumbs. The reality of potential messes requires that practitioners be thoughtful about what materials they are willing to use during a session.

“Also, there need to be limits around time and mess,” Bloom said. “I stop the art-making process 10 minutes before the session ends because I want to make sure the people are back in their conscious process. I want to make sure we have time to clean up. [There are] materials that I don’t use. I don’t use paint in my office because it’s so easy to get out of control. I do spend money on fancy Copic markers with brush tips so you can have that experience of painting but without the mess.”

Invest in quality materials. Investing in quality materials will allow clients to stay focused on the therapeutic process instead of struggling to work with dried-out markers, inkless pens, stubby crayons or dull pencils. Additionally, having a selection of higher-grade media to choose from can signal clients that you are taking the art-making process seriously and being thoughtful about the materials with which you are asking them to work. “Clients can take a bad art-making experience personally,” Bloom observed.

Try it yourself first. Another common mistake clinicians sometimes make when using art directives during session is believing that instruction alone will inspire a client to make therapeutically meaningful art. “The only thing I hate for clients is when a therapist says, ‘Draw your darkest fear,’ and the client looks at them like, ‘You try that first. You try drawing your darkest fear,’” Bloom said. “You don’t want to ask anybody to do something that didn’t work for you, because you’re not going to be able to sell it very well, and you’re not going to be able to take care of somebody if it doesn’t go right. And you’re not going to understand the resistance in not wanting to do it.”

This also holds true for comic creation. If the counselor has never drawn a comic, then it will be difficult to understand client process from an artistic and therapeutic standpoint. One practice that can be helpful for therapists new to comic making is to try working with their own “daily comics journal.”

Kurt Shaffert, a fellow in applied cartooning at the Center for Cartoon Studies, located in White River Junction, Vermont, endorsed this practice, acknowledging that he has used it himself. “The basic idea is to sit down every morning and draw a simple three- to four-panel cartoon that captures where you are in that moment,” he said. “It was very helpful for me when I was going through some difficult personal circumstances. And when I began sharing them with my friends and family, they began to have a better understanding of what was happening with me during
that time.”

Houpt also uses the daily comics journal exercise to help temper the high emotions and excitement that can accompany working with comics. “I always emphasize the importance of pacing with clients,” Houpt said. “I think people can get really excited about comics and want to get really deep really fast. So something that I’ve done a lot with folks is ask them to keep a daily comics journal with just six panels per page. It puts a little bit of structure around it so that the experience doesn’t become overwhelming. And that practice has been really helpful for people to identify problems and solutions in their lives, to start recognizing themes, patterns and alternative stories about who they are through their personal artistic languages.”

There are also many opportunities for clinicians to gain firsthand experience with art therapy and comic-making interventions by utilizing local resources. Many art therapists, including those interviewed for this article, offer community-based workshops for clinicians and laypeople alike. Connecting with local therapists who regularly use art-based interventions can also provide valuable networking opportunities and potential ongoing clinical support as counselors begin to integrate art into their practice.

Read comics … and talk about them. If you are reading this article, chances are that you have some interest in the medium of comics, which exists apart from the therapeutic value of making comics. Exposing yourself to a wide range of commercially available comic books and graphic novels can help expand your understanding of what comics are — or ultimately can be.

Cultivating a broader understanding of what is considered a comic can help the therapeutic process in the long run. “I do find that I have to explain comics in many different ways to people,” Houpt said. “Sometimes I won’t call them comics. Sometimes I’ll say, ‘stories using words and pictures,’ or I will talk about something they might be familiar with, like the Sunday cartoons. … There’s all kinds of different interpretations. So, I just use that and make that part of the process of making comics with the client because, same as any other identifier about a person, it will mean a different thing to each individual.”

Talking with clients about their own beliefs regarding the medium can put them more at ease, which might allow them to experience greater gains from creating comics as part of the therapeutic process.

Be aware of the ethics regarding client art. There are additional ethical considerations that accompany counselors asking clients to make art for a therapeutic purpose. “I definitely think that all kinds of people can do some basic art therapy directives,” Bloom said. “I produce books that have those directives in them. Lots of people do. One of the major differences between people [who] are trained as art therapists and people who are not is what happens to the art after [it has] been made. It’s very common that people who are not trained as art therapists will put the art right up on the wall. Whereas art therapists believe that’s a private clinical conversation and that the client either takes that artwork home with them, or they keep it in the client’s file, or maybe the client destroys it. But it’s not up for public view.”

Another unintended consequence is that if a client walks into a room filled with client art, this might unknowingly set the expectation that all client art will be displayed, which can be problematic. As Bloom explains, “The idea within art therapy is that you might release something on the page that is unattractive that you don’t want anybody [else] to see. … If you go into an environment that has people’s art up on the walls, people will make less revealing art, most likely.”

Additionally, displaying client art might unintentionally create a false standard of how comic-making interventions “should look” for clients. Because some clients are more artistically inclined than others, certain clients might be reluctant — or even outright refuse — to create art because of insecurity around their abilities.

Self-portraits drawn by Kurt Shaffert (top) and Katharine Houpt.

“I also like to talk with clients about what MK Czerwiec discusses in her chapter in the Graphic Medicine Manifesto, which is the ‘fourth-grade slump,’” Houpt says. “That’s the idea that before fourth grade, everybody raises their hand when the teacher asks, ‘Who in here is an artist?’ And then starting in fourth grade, everybody points to the one kid who draws the best. So, why do we do that to ourselves? Why should we limit this outlet for joy and expression in our lives just because we think we’re not the best at it?”

Allowing clients to create comics without the pressure of comparison is essential for therapeutic work to occur, and that should be the goal of any intervention used with clients. Counselors should also know that any art created during a therapy session receives the same protections under HIPAA (the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) that any other physical media (such as audio recordings and written materials) would.

Resources

It can be difficult for those who aren’t art therapists to begin working with a medium such as comics because the sheer amount of available materials can be overwhelming. The following list serves as a brief primer on texts that might be useful when beginning to integrate comic making into an existing practice. These recommendations were provided by the clinicians interviewed for this article and are grouped into separate categories for clarity.

General art therapy

  • Art Is a Way of Knowing: A Guide to Self-Knowledge and Spiritual Fulfillment Through Creativity by Pat B. Allen
  • Square the Circle: Art Therapy Workbook by Rebecca Bloom
  • The Art Therapy Sourcebook by Cathy Malchiodi
  • Materials & Media in Art Therapy: Critical Understandings of Diverse Artistic Vocabularies by Catharine Moon

Comics and Cartooning

  • Cartooning: Philosophy and Practice by Ivan Brunetti
  • Comics and Sequential Art by Will Eisner
  • Cartooning: The Ultimate Character Design Book by Christopher Hart
  • Understanding Comics and Making Comics by Scott McCloud

Conclusion

Although interest regarding the intersection of health services delivery and comics is at an all-time high, empirical research regarding the efficacy of comic creation as a direct intervention is largely absent. This might dissuade practitioners from introducing comic making into their therapeutic work, but it is important to remember that every testable intervention begins with a theoretical question, moves to the gathering of qualitative/anecdotal evidence and then transitions to quantitative outcome measurements.

This article has briefly addressed the narrative frame of comic creating while also sharing anecdotal insights from practitioners who use the intervention directly. The next step for helping make comic creation a more widely accepted and accessible intervention is to conduct rigorous research regarding outcomes. For social science researchers, these pursuits do not have to be conducted in isolation. That is reassuring for therapists such as Houpt: “I think that’s part of what was so exciting to me [about going] to the Comics & Medicine Conference this year. It was my first one. And to see people from so many different fields … different silos, who are doing similar work with different frameworks, different approaches, but arriving at similar outcomes. So, there has to be something there, and I wonder if part of the answer is more interdisciplinary collaboration.”

 

Author Devlyn McCreight, LMHC, draws a comic at his art desk. Photo by Sarah McCreight.

 

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Devlyn McCreight is a licensed mental health counselor and owner of McCreight Psychotherapy & Clinical Consulting LLC. Contact him at devlyn@mccreightpsychotherapy or through his website at drdevlyn.com.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Talking through the pain

By Laurie Meyers January 30, 2018

By the time the 43-year-old man, a victim of an industrial accident, limped into American Counseling Association member David Engstrom’s office, he’d been experiencing lower back pain for 10 years and taking OxyContin for six. The client, whose pain was written in the grimace on his face as he sat down, was a referral from a local orthopedic surgeon, who was concerned about the man’s rapidly increasing tolerance to the drug.

“He often took twice the prescribed dose, and the effect on his pain was diminishing,” says Engstrom, a health psychologist who works in integrated care centers.

The man’s story is, unfortunately, not unusual. According to the National Institutes of Health, 8 out of 10 adults will experience lower back pain at some point in their lives. As the more than 76 million baby boomers continue to age, many of them will increasingly face the aches and pains that come with chronic health issues. And as professional counselors are aware, mental health issues such as depression, anxiety and addiction can also cause or heighten physical pain.

Those who suffer from chronic pain are often in desperate need of some succor, but in many cases, prescription drug treatments or surgery may be ineffective or undesirable. Fortunately, professional counselors can often help provide some relief.

Treating chronic pain

At first, the client had only one question for Engstrom: “I’m not crazy, so why am I here?”

Although the man’s physician did not think that the pain was all in the man’s head, it is not uncommon for sufferers of chronic pain to encounter skepticism about what they are experiencing. “It was important … to defuse the idea that I might think he was imagining his pain,” Engstrom says. “So I [told him] that I accepted that his pain was real and that all pain is experienced from both body and mind. I told him that we would be a team and work on this together.”

Engstrom and the client worked together for five months. As they followed the treatment plan, the man’s physician slowly eased him off of the OxyContin.

Engstrom began by teaching the client relaxation exercises such as progressive muscle relaxation. “When in pain, the natural inclination of the body is to contract muscles,” Engstrom explains. “In the long term, this reduces blood flow to the painful area and slows the healing process. Contracted muscles can be a direct source of pain.”

Engstrom also began using biofeedback to promote further relaxation. In biofeedback sessions, sensors are attached to the body and connected to a monitoring device that measures bodily functions such as breathing, perspiration, skin temperature, blood pressure, muscle tension and heartbeat.

“When you relax, clear your mind and breathe deeply, your breathing slows and your heart rate dips correspondingly,” Engstrom explains. “As the signals change on the monitors, you begin to learn how to consciously control body functions that are normally unconscious. For many clients, this sense of control can be a powerful, liberating experience.”

As Engstrom’s client learned to control his responses, he began reporting a decrease in pain following the relaxation exercises.

Engstrom also used cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) methods, including asking the man to keep a daily journal recording his pain level at different times of the day, along with his activity and mood. Through the journal, the man started recognizing that his pain level wasn’t constant. Instead, it varied and was influenced by what he was doing and thinking at the time.

Engstrom highly recommends CBT for pain treatment because it helps provide pain relief in several ways. “First, it changes the way people view their pain,” he says. “CBT can change the thoughts, emotions and behaviors related to pain, improve coping strategies and put the discomfort in a better context. You recognize that the pain interferes less with your quality of life and, therefore, you can function better.”

In this case, the client was trapped by thoughts that “the pain will never go away” and “I’ll end up a cripple,” Engstrom says. He and the client worked on CBT exercises for several months, keeping track of and questioning the validity of such negative future thoughts. They also practiced substituting more helpful thoughts, including “I will take each day as it comes” and “I will focus on doing the best I can today.”

Chronic pain often engenders a sense of helplessness among those who experience it, Engstrom says, so CBT also helps by producing a problem-solving mindset. When clients take action, they typically feel more in control of their pain, he says.

CBT also fosters new coping skills, giving clients tools that they can use in other parts of their lives. “The tactics a client learns for pain control can help with other problems they may encounter in the future, such as depression, anxiety or stress,” Engstrom says.

Because clients can engage in CBT exercises on their own, it also fosters a sense of autonomy. Engstrom often gives clients worksheets or book chapters to review at home, allowing them to practice controlling their pain independently.

Engstrom notes that CBT can also change the physical response in the brain that makes pain worse. “Pain causes stress, and stress affects pain-control chemicals in the brain, such as norepinephrine and serotonin,” he explains. “By reducing arousal that impacts these chemicals, the body’s natural pain-relief responses may become more powerful.”

Although Engstrom acknowledges that he could not completely banish the discomfort his client felt, he was able to lessen both the sensation and perception of the man’s pain and give him tools to better manage it.

Taking away pain’s power

Mindfulness is another powerful tool for lessening the perception of pain, says licensed professional counselor (LPC) Russ Curtis, co-leader of ACA’s Interest Network for Integrated Care.

Mindfulness teaches the art of awareness without judgment, meaning that we are aware of our thoughts and feelings but can choose the ones we focus on, Curtis continues. He gives an example of how a client might learn to regard pain: “This is pain. Pain is a sensation. And sensations tend to ebb and flow and may eventually subside, even if just for a little while. I’ll breathe and get back to doing what is meaningful to me.”

Engstrom agrees. Unlike traditional painkillers, mindfulness is not intended to dull or eliminate the pain. Instead, when managing pain through the use of mindfulness-based practices, the goal is to change clients’ perception of the pain so that they suffer less, he explains.

“Suffering is not always related to pain,” Engstrom continues. “A big unsolved puzzle is how some clients can tolerate a great deal of pain without suffering, while others suffer with relatively smaller degrees of pain.”

According to Engstrom, the way that people experience pain is related not just to its intensity but also to other variables. Some of these variable include:

  • Emotional state: “I am angry that I am feeling this way.”
  • Beliefs about pain: “This pain means there’s something seriously wrong with me.”
  • Expectations: “These painkillers aren’t going to work.”
  • Environment: “I don’t have anyone to talk to about how I feel.”

By helping people separate the physical sensation of pain from its other less tangible factors, mindfulness can reduce the suffering associated with pain, even if it is not possible to lessen its severity, Engstrom says.

According to Engstrom, mindfulness may also improve the psychological experience of pain by:

  • Decreasing repetitive thinking and reactivity
  • Increasing a sense of acceptance of unpleasant sensations
  • Improving emotional flexibility
  • Reducing rumination and avoidant behaviors
  • Increasing a sense of acceptance of the present moment
  • Increasing the relaxation response and decreasing stress

Curtis, an associate professor of counseling at Western Carolina University in North Carolina, suggests acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as another technique to help guide clients’ focus away from their pain.

“ACT can help people revisit what their true values are, whether it’s being of service, having a great family life or creating art,” he notes. Encouraging clients to identify and pursue what is most important to them helps ensure that despite the pain they feel, they are still engaging in the things that give their lives meaning and not waiting for a cure before moving forward, Curtis explains.

Teamwork and support

In helping clients confront chronic pain, Curtis says, counselors should not forget their most effective weapon — the therapeutic relationship. Because living with chronic pain can be very isolating, simply sitting with clients and listening to their stories with empathy is very powerful, he says.

Counselors have the opportunity to provide the validation and support that clients with chronic pain may not be getting from the other people in their lives, says Christopher Yadron, an LPC and former private practitioner who specialized in pain management and substance abuse treatment. The sense of shame that often accompanies the experience of chronic pain can add to clients’ isolation, he says. According to Yadron, who is currently an administrator at the Betty Ford Center in Rancho Mirage, California, clients with chronic pain often fear that others will question the legitimacy of their pain — for instance, whether it is truly “bad enough” for them to need extended time off from work or to miss social occasions.

Curtis says it is important for counselors to ensure that these clients understand that the therapeutic relationship is collaborative and equal. That means that rather than simply throwing out solutions, counselors need to truly listen to these clients. This includes asking them what other methods of pain relief they have tried — such as supplements, over-the-counter painkillers, physical therapy, yoga or swimming — and what worked best for them, Curtis says.

The U.S. health care system has led many people to believe that there is a pill or surgery for every ailment, Curtis observes. This makes the provision of psychoeducation essential for clients with chronic pain. “Let them know there’s no magic bullet,” he says. Instead, he advises that counselors help clients see that relief will be incremental and that it will be delivered via multiple techniques, usually in conjunction with a team of other health professionals such as physicians and physical therapists.

Curtis, Yadron and Engstrom all agree that counselors should work in conjunction with clients’ other health care providers when trying to address the issue of chronic pain. Ultimately, however, it may be up to the counselor to put the “whole picture” together.

A 60-something female client with severe depression was referred to Engstrom from a pain clinic, where she had been diagnosed and treated for fibromyalgia. After an assessment, Engstrom could see that the woman’s depression was related to continuing pain, combined with social isolation and poor sleep patterns. The woman was unemployed, lived alone and spent most of her day worrying about whether her pain would get any better. Some of her previous doctors had not believed that fibromyalgia was a real medical concern and thus simply had dismissed her as being lonely and depressed. Despite finally receiving treatment for her fibromyalgia, the woman was still in a lot of pain when she was referred to Engstrom.

Engstrom treated the woman’s depression with CBT and taught her to practice mindfulness through breathing exercises and being present. Addressing her mood and sleep problems played a crucial role in improving her pain (insomnia is common in fibromyalgia). By dismissing the woman’s fibromyalgia diagnosis, discounting the importance of mood and not even considering the quality of her sleep, multiple doctors had failed to treat her pain.

Engstrom points out that in this case and the case of his client with lower back pain, successful treatment hinged on cognitive and behavioral factors — manifestations of pain that medical professionals often overlook.

 

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Laurie Meyers is the senior writer for Counseling Today. Contact her at lmeyers@counseling.org.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

 

Counseling interns get firsthand exposure to immigrant experience

By Bethany Bray September 26, 2016

An innovative partnership in North Carolina is pairing counseling graduate students from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte with clients of a free medical clinic nearby. Many of these clients are recent immigrants.

According to those involved with the effort, the partnership provides the student interns with a chance to hone their counseling skills while also offering them a firsthand lesson in advocacy and social justice issues.

The Bethesda Health Center (BHC) provides free primary care, diabetes and hypertension management, and health education for low-income and uninsured residents of Charlotte and the surrounding county. The UNC Charlotte counseling interns offer mental health care alongside these physical health services.

The partnership provides much-needed care to minority populations who are, statistically, the least likely to seek or access mental health services, says Daniel Gutierrez, an assistant professor of counseling at UNC Charlotte, as well as a licensed professional counselor, licensed mental health counselor and member of the American Counseling Association.

It has also provided counseling students with some valuable learning that transcends the typical textbook lessons, says Katherine Wilkin, an ACA member and clinical mental health counseling student at UNC Charlotte. Wilkin, who was born in Venezuela, is able to offer counseling to BHC clients in Spanish and English.

The experience has opened Wilkin’s eyes to the cultural factors that often increase risks for mental health struggles, including the stress of navigating a language barrier and acculturation to a new location.

“My experience at Bethesda Health Clinic has enriched my training and has strengthened my passion for providing mental health services to the Hispanic population in their native language of Spanish,” Wilkin says. “… This program exposes counselors and students to a diverse population with unique issues. The [U.S.’s] growing Hispanic population calls for mental health professionals to be sensitive and aware of the cultural considerations when working with this population.”

UNC Charlotte’s work at BHC was highlighted recently by National Public Radio (NPR). CT Online reached out to Gutierrez for a Q+A to find out more.

 

CT: In your own words, how does this program meet a need?

DG: Latinos are the fastest-growing and largest minority in the U.S., and they experience mental health disorders at the same rate — some argue at higher rates — as the majority culture. Yet, when compared to the majority culture, they are the least likely to access mental health treatment. They, on average, receive a lower quality of care and end up presenting with more severe symptoms.

There is no doubt that there is a great need for effective and accessible mental health care for this population. However, there are numerous barriers that keep Latinos from accessing mental health treatment, such as language difficulties, a lack of appropriately trained mental health workers, stigma and an overall difficulty trusting providers.

On the other hand, counselor educators everywhere preach the importance of teaching our students to work with underserved and vulnerable populations, but we don’t always have the opportunity to give our students quality learning experiences doing this work. This program meets two needs: a) it creates access to appropriate mental health services for an underserved population; and b) it creates a diverse and dynamic learning experience for our students.

 

What have you learned from this program?

I don’t think you have enough room [in this article] to describe what I’ve learned. I learned how complicated it is to set up a program like this. I learned the importance of doing work with the I_learnedcommunity and not just in the community. This program has also reaffirmed my belief that understanding people is more important than understanding illness.

 

 

Talk about the logistics of how this program came together. What did it take to get started?

First off, the real credit goes to people like Wendy Mateo, the executive director of the Bethesda Health Center. Before all the publicity from NPR, and with limited resources and under some very challenging circumstances, Wendy was wholeheartedly serving the Latino community by providing medical care and chronic health management to the low-income and uninsured immigrant families in Charlotte. She does an amazing job and is an inspiration to helpers everywhere.

When we met with Wendy, she expressed that although they were making considerable strides in improving the physical health of Latinos in Charlotte, there was a great need for mental health services for their patients. We quickly realized that serving at a clinic that helps the underserved in Charlotte would be an amazing opportunity for our counseling students, and that our counseling students could provide the services that Bethesda truly needed. So, we brought together a team of faculty from different departments and began conversations about building counseling capacity at this free clinic.

We began by first evaluating the mental health needs for the current patients. We conducted chart reviews, spoke with staff at Bethesda and began to develop an understanding of what kind of mental health needs they were facing. We then had a series of meetings evaluating space needs; developing the right type of forms; discussing issues related to supervision, ethics, confidentiality, HIPPA compliance, how to manage interpreters; and examining the whole process for providing services.

I think we were all very aware that starting this program had many moving parts and that it wasn’t going to be as easy as just putting two chairs in a corner and assigning clients to students. It was a long and complex process, if we were going to do this right. These clients are already underserved by the community and are statistically more likely to receive substandard quality of care. It was important that we gave them the best care we could and that our students were going to have a positive experience.

After establishing a format and structure for the services, we recruited two doctoral-level counseling students who were licensed professional counselors to begin seeing clients. We called this our pilot study. We evaluated the progress of these initial students and used this data to inform the placement of master’s students. That following semester, we began placing master’s counseling students in their internships and practicums at the site. Thus far, the clients and the students both consider this program a great success.

 

Based on your experience, what advice would you give to counselors who might want to get involved in something similar in their local area?

One of the key members of our team, Mark DeHaven, is known for saying, “Collaboration is good, but partnership is better.” Too often we try to collaborate with community sites because they are great places to get data or place students, and that has merit. However, when you partner with a community agency, you begin to share responsibility and work together toward common goals, and that’s a whole other wonderfully beautiful thing.

I invite those who want to start these kinds of programs to begin by building strong community partnerships. It is complicated and sometimes cumbersome to partner with community agencies, but it has to be less about you and your agenda, and more about the needs of the people you are serving.

It’s also important that you develop a strong team of like-minded people [who are] willing to not just talk the talk but also walk the walk. I am lucky to work along some great and passionate people from different departments. Our team consists of Edward Wierzalis, a fellow Department of Counseling faculty member and the UNCC counseling program clinical coordinator; Mark DeHaven, a distinguished professor in public health science; Roger Suclupe, a lecturer from social work; Amy Peterman, an associate professor and director of clinical training in the Health Psychology Department; and a counseling Ph.D. student, Carolina Benitez.

This team made this project come together. So, my second piece of advice for future counselors is to build a good team.

 

The NPR piece says this came about because you were “looking to get more involved in the community.” Can you elaborate? Why is that important to you?

Well, I think this is probably a pretty personal question. I think everyone on our team serves in the community for different reasons. For me, I am driven by the spiritual ideas of welcoming the stranger, reaching out to those deemed the least and doing justice. I was also mentored by people who continually stated that in a world with so many health disparities, economic disparities and so much need, counselor educators should strive to go beyond mere talk and do impactful work.

After the NPR story went national, the first words from my mentor’s mouth were, “Some people got help — and that is the important thing.” I hang that email by my desk at work because it keeps me focused. Those of us with counseling training are equipped to do good in this world. Doing nothing seems like a mistake to me.

 

What type of nontextbook lessons have you seen your students learning?

Probably what I’ve enjoyed the most about this process is the surprising reactions I’ve seen from students. Our program has an emphasis on multiculturalism and diversity, so the students are well-versed in textbook knowledge. However, the internship experience [at BHC] offeredtears_in_eyes them a real quality experience working with a population that was culturally different from their own.

I have had students come to me during their experience and sit in my office with tears in their eyes, and say things like “I just didn’t know” and “I love working with these people.” I think it raised student awareness to some of the struggles Latino immigrants face, such as having to cope with the traumas they experienced before entering the U.S., the stress and anxiety of leaving loved ones behind, and trying to care for family with limited resources. They also expressed new levels of multicultural awareness and realized that there was much they had taken for granted, such as the ability to speak the same language as their clients.

At the end of the most recent semester, we had students describe their experiences, and most stated that what [they had] learned most form the program was “working with people who are culturally different from you,” “understanding that most Latinos are very different and come from different countries, even though they are all labeled as Latino” and “learning the challenges of working with translators and the importance of tuning into body language.” Students also stated that this site [BHC] provided them with experiences that many of the other sites could not.

 

What do you want counselors to know about this program and your experience with it?

I would want my colleagues across the country to know one thing: This is worth doing. Latinos and other racial ethnic minorities are not receiving services at the same rates as the majority population. There is a need for helping professionals willing to reach out to our communities.

This kind of work might be complicated to set up and require more energy than you want to expend, but it’s good work and it is worth doing. It’s a great experience for the students and the community. It’s not simple work; you will most likely make a lot of mistakes getting this kind of a program off the ground – I know we did – but it is so much better to dance and miss a few steps than to never dance at all.

 

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From NPR: “Students Fill a Gap in Mental Health Care for Immigrants

Find out more about the Bethesda Health Center at caminocommunitycenter.org

 

Contact Daniel Gutierrez at DGutierrez@uncc.edu

 

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Bethany Bray is a staff writer for Counseling Today. Contact her at bbray@counseling.org

 

Follow Counseling Today on Twitter @ACA_CTonline and on Facebook at facebook.com/CounselingToday.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.