Monthly Archives: July 2017

The Counseling Connoisseur: Feminist psychology and the Amazonian mystique

By Cheryl Fisher July 13, 2017

She wanted a hero…so that’s what she became! –Anonymous

 

Clad in her patriotic unitard and silver arm bands, her dark mane cascading as she twirls her golden lasso of truth, Wonder Woman has become an icon of beauty, physical strength and moral character. Her conception in 1941 has taken her from her Amazonian haven of Paradise Island into the land of patriarchy as she is committed to help humans end violence and suffering in the United States. From her 1940s pinup persona to her 1970s Lynda Carter television series and this summer’s blockbuster movie, Wonder Woman continues to wrestle with the underpinnings of injustice in a society plagued with inequity. In creating Wonder Woman, psychologist William Moulton Marston hoped to “set up a standard among children and young people of strong free courageous women and to combat the idea women are inferior to men, and to inspire girls to self-confidence and achievements in athletics, occupations and professions monopolized by men.”

Harvard professor Jill Lepore suggests in her book The Secret History of Wonder Woman that Wonder Woman acted as a bridge for feminism, highlighting the first cover of Ms. magazine in 1972 with the headline ‘‘Wonder Woman for president.’’ Yet, not everyone was convinced of this superheroine’s positive influence on young and impressionable minds.  In his 1954 book The Seduction of the Innocent, psychiatrist Fredric Wertham described Wonder Woman as “…always a horror type. She is physically very powerful, tortures men and has her own female following, is the cruel, ‘phallic’ woman. While she is a frightening figure for boys, she is an undesirable ideal for girls, being the exact opposite of what girls are supposed to be.”

While Wertham lost his argument declaring comics a contributing factor to delinquency, it wasn’t until 2010 that evidence of the manipulation of data supporting his theory was fully revealed.  Nevertheless, Wonder Woman remains a constant iconic figure in the history of feminism.

Feminist psychology: History

In an attempt to counter Freud’s male-centered theory of identity formation, Karen Horney and other female psychologists developed theories that did not exclude the female experience. It was believed that rather than experiencing penis envy, what women desired was the status and opportunity afforded to men. Rejecting Freud’s theory in 1926, Horney introduced the concept of womb envy, or the desire around women’s ability to create and connect to their children.

The first wave of feminism occurred between 1900 and 1920 and included the suffrage movement, which ultimately won women the right to vote. Simultaneously, the field of psychology was emerging with theories of learning and intelligence. Women who were instrumental to the early conceptualization of psychology included Mary Whiton Calkins, the first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA) and Margaret Floy Washburn, who was the first woman to earn a doctorate in psychology and was the second woman, after Calkins, to serve as APA president.  Women were generally excluded from academia and (ironically) Elizabeth “Sadie” Holloway, the wife of William Moulton Marston (the creator of Wonder Woman) earned a PhD in psychology but was forbidden to attend college with men.

Marston, a psychologist and inventor of the polygraph, produced a paper in 1928 that declared that human emotions came from four factors: dominance, compliance, submission and inducement. According to Marston, inducement was the most powerful of forces, encouraging one to submit – and producing pleasantness in the induced. This was a trait that Marston identified in women, on which he based his 1937 proclamation that women would establish a matriarchy in 100 years because they have the biological advantage with “twice the love-generating organs” as men.  It was from this theoretical framework that Marston introduced his Wonder Woman in 1941.

Biology or social learning and gender prescription

Early psychology and first wave feminism emphasized the biological differences between the binary assignments of male and female-ness. Philosopher, psychologist and Harvard University professor William James denounced women as leaders because of their “tender-minded nature.”  However, second wave feminists of the 1960 to 1980s repealed the androcentric approaches to gender identity and research began to identify greater similarities between men and women.

Many theorists agree that most noted gender differences result from social learning and rewards or punishments for desired socially prescribed behavior. In essence, the theory posits that boys and girls are rewarded for different behaviors and therefore, learn what behaviors are appropriate for their gender. Social structural theory builds on social learning theory by addressing the secondary skills learned as a result of the learned primary behaviors. For example, if a girl is rewarded for domestic skills, a secondary learned behavior may be communal skills. This may result in the stereotyping of domestic work and promote the continued disenfranchising of women.

Wonder Woman attempted to dispel gender differences and employed an internal locus of control. She attributed her successes to commitment and training and valued mental and moral strength, in addition to physical conditioning.

Cultural identity

In addition to gender identity, cultural and ethnic identity contribute to one’s overall sense of self.  Cultural identity involves actively learning about one’s culture (beliefs, values and customs) and developing a clear understanding of the meaning of culture in one’s life. This includes the development of positive feelings toward one’s cultural group membership. Cultural identity in younger children is viewed in terms of physical characteristics. As they mature, culture takes on more social and membership implications.  Research appears to suggest an increase in cultural identity formation during middle adolescence. Furthermore, researchers Timothy Smith and Lynda Silva found evidence to suggest that cultural identity is a predictor of wellbeing among minority adolescents. Wonder Woman identifies as a member of the Amazons living in Paradise Island. While she is fluent in most languages, she is unfamiliar with the rules that accompany an androcentric world. She is abruptly thrown into a society that does not value women as equal [to men] and forces women to bind themselves [in clothes] “restricting their ability to be free to battle.” She wears her arm bands as a reminder that she will never be bound by anyone again. She must learn to acculturate in a way that honors her past and helps her function in the present. She must find membership and belonging in this new land, [which are] tasks that resonate with individuals migrating from other countries.

Conclusion

Wonder Woman has been described as complicated and dichotomous. According to researcher and social work educator Paige Averett, Wonder Woman “is feminine, sexual, submissive and dependent. She is also strong, capable, independent, fierce and ultimately a warrior. Unlike so many other female role models, she does not promote a one-dimensional view of the lived experience of being a woman. Wonder Woman is not just a sexy, attractive woman or just a strong kick-ass heroine or just a nurturing daughter and girlfriend or just a hardworking, justice-loving and world-changing working woman. She is all these things. Wonder Woman does not have to choose.”

Maybe this is the mystique of the Amazon princess that has remained strong for more than 75 years. While she is clearly not free from bias as a light-skinned, blue-eyed, dark haired, slender, more-than-able-bodied demigod, the idea of Wonder Woman poses the vision to engender life without prescription, to capitalize on individual strengths and to promote endless possibilities … for all persons.

 

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Cheryl Fisher

Cheryl Fisher is a licensed clinical professional counselor in private practice in Annapolis, Maryland. She is affiliate faculty for Loyola and Fordham Universities. Her research interests include examining sexuality and spirituality in young women with advanced breast cancer; Nature-informed therapy: and Geek Therapy.  She will be presenting Geek Therapy 101 at the Association for Creativity in Counseling conference in September.   She may be contacted at cyfisherphd@gmail.com.

 

 

 

 

 

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Related reading: See Counseling Today’s July cover story on the intersection of pop culture and counseling: wp.me/p2BxKN-4Lb

 

Letters to the editor: CT@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

FASD: A guide for mental health professionals

By Jerrod Brown July 10, 2017

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which researchers have estimated affect 2 to 5 percent of the U.S. population, are lifelong conditions that result from exposure to alcohol in utero. Kenneth L. Jones, David W. Smith and colleagues are credited with discovering the birth defects and long-term impacts on cognitive and social functioning caused by fetal alcohol syndrome in 1973.

Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a host of issues related to:

  • Cognitive functioning (e.g., impulse control, attention, executive functioning)
  • Social functioning (e.g., communication skills, recognition of social cues)
  • Adaptive functioning (e.g., problem-solving, ability to adapt to new situations)

Furthermore, several neurological issues characterize FASD, including stunted cell and nerve growth, elevated rates of cell mortality, neurotransmitter interruptions and migration issues in organic brain growth. Complicating matters, the overwhelming majority of individuals with FASD experience an array of psychiatric disorders, increasing the likelihood that these individuals will need specialized services from mental health care providers.

Unfortunately, many of these providers and professionals lack the necessary training and expertise to accurately identify and effectively treat the unique and complex symptomatology of this population. The goal of this article is to provide a basic introduction of FASD to mental health professionals in six key areas: FASD symptoms, diagnostic comorbidity, memory impairments, tips for interacting with individuals who may have FASD, screening and assessment, and treatment.

FASD symptoms

A diverse range of symptoms characterizes FASD.

Executive functioning deficits: Impairments associated with executive functioning are a hallmark deficit of FASD, impacting the majority of individuals affected by these disorders. Executive functioning deficits are often associated with impulsivity, diminished ability to learn from consequences and impairments in planning, verbal reasoning, emotional regulation, memory and learning.

Social skills deficits: Individuals with FASD often have pervasive impairments in the domain of social functioning. Misinterpretation of social cues is not uncommon. This can lead to boundary violation concerns (e.g., inappropriately touching another person), which can in turn result in involvement in the criminal justice system. Such social skill deficits can also increase the individual’s level of vulnerability to manipulation by others and an inability to detect unsafe situations and people.

Attachment problems: Consistent with these deficits in social skills, poor attachment with the primary caregiver is relatively common in children with FASD. Poor attachment with the primary caregiver can increase the likelihood of misdiagnosis in a child. Common misdiagnoses may include attention-based (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) or behavior-based disorders (e.g., conduct and oppositional defiant disorders). In fact, it is not uncommon for these disorders to co-occur with a diagnosis of FASD. Given that reality, mental health professionals who work with individuals impacted by FASD should familiarize themselves with commonly co-occurring disorders such as those just mentioned.

Adaptive functioning: Adaptive functioning involves an individual’s practical, social and mental capacities to deal with everyday challenges and problems (e.g., personal hygiene, personal finances, navigating social interactions). In light of the executive functioning problems outlined earlier, as well as struggles with processing abstract information and solving problems, individuals with FASD have difficulty in the realm of adaptive functioning. The consequences can range from difficulty maintaining employment to struggles with caring for one’s self. Because of these deficits in adaptive functioning, a high percentage of individuals with FASD are dependent on the support of family and social services.

Learning problems: One of the key issues related to adaptive functioning among individuals with FASD is difficulty learning from past experiences. Furthermore, individuals with FASD often struggle to use past experience to prospectively avoid dangerous people and situations. These deficits are exacerbated by impulsivity and an inability to think strategically about decisions. Hence, FASD affects an individual’s ability to understand society’s norms and to behave within those norms.

Diagnostic comorbidity

Increasing the likelihood of negative short- and long-term outcomes, individuals with FASD often have co-occurring disorders and other issues.

Diagnostic comorbidity: It has been estimated that the overwhelming majority of individuals with FASD experience comorbid psychiatric conditions. ADHD is the most prevalent comorbid disorder observed among those affected by FASD. Other disorders frequently observed among adolescents with FASD include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Finally, individuals with FASD are also at an elevated risk to abuse substances later in life.

Physical complications: A number of physiological symptoms can suggest the possibility of FASD. For example, prenatal alcohol exposure can result in cardiovascular (e.g., septal defects, hypoplastic pulmonary arteries) and kidney (e.g., pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis, hypoplasia) irregularities. Prenatal alcohol exposure has also been linked to orthopedic irregularities in the structure of bones in the upper body (e.g., radioulnar synostosis), fingers and toes (e.g., camptodactyly, brachydactyly, clinodactyly).

Other brain-based injuries: Individuals with FASD may be more prone to traumatic brain injuries throughout the life span. This could contribute to the underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of FASD. Furthermore, these traumatic brain injuries may exacerbate other secondary conditions, including ADHD, executive functioning impairments, mental health and substance use disorders, and so on.

Other life adversities: As a function of FASD and these other co-occurring disorders and impairments, individuals with FASD are disproportionately likely to be afflicted with problematic life experiences. For example, individuals with FASD often come from unstable homes, experience neglect and abuse (verbal, physical or sexual), and are exposed to substance use, mental illness and criminal justice involvement by their families and household members. As such, mental health professionals should view these co-occurring disorders and other negative life experiences as potential indicators of FASD, necessitating a need for further assessment and evaluation.

Memory

One of the most devastating cognitive deficits of FASD is short- and long-term memory impairment.

Poor memory: Individuals with FASD typically have problems associated with memory. In some instances, these issues can lead to over- and underendorsement of symptoms, contributing to missed and misdiagnosis. In other instances, these individuals can struggle with retrieving and communicating their memories, contributing to issues such as suggestibility, confabulation, fabricating stories and incorrect storytelling.

Suggestibility: The suggestibility of individuals with FASD can be detrimental in at least two ways. First, these individuals may be manipulated into participating in criminal activity by peers. Second, these individuals may be prone to falsely confessing to criminal activities that they did not commit. As such, mental health professionals must take care to verify the accuracy of statements made by individuals with FASD. Mental health professionals should also take the topic of suggestibility into account when phrasing and asking questions during the initial intake and diagnostic assessment process.

Confabulation: FASD and other disorders characterized by memory deficits often co-occur with confabulation issues. Confabulation occurs when new memories are created by filling gaps in recall with one’s real memories, imagination or environmental cues. Incidents of confabulation may occur spontaneously or be prompted. For example, confabulation is particularly likely in situations in which professionals ask leading questions or pressure the interviewee. As such, confabulation can contribute to inaccurate self-reports by the client, resulting in possible misdiagnosis and the development of an ineffective treatment plan.

Interacting with clients

The pervasive symptoms of FASD have important implications for how mental health professionals should interact with clients who may have these disorders.

Importance of simplicity: Individuals with FASD tend to perform better when tackling one task at a time. This is especially true of tasks that do not involve reliance on previous experience to complete. Multistep and complex questioning can result in individuals with FASD shutting down emotionally or responding with factually incorrect or incomplete responses. Mental health professionals should take this into account when screening, assessing and developing treatment plans for this population.

Superficial talkativeness: The propensity for individuals diagnosed with FASD to be charming and talkative may lead mental health professionals to overestimate their level of competence and comprehension of treatment goals. It is important for clinicians to have these individuals demonstrate understanding and knowledge of the question being asked by explaining it back to the professional in their own words. Overuse of yes-or-no questioning can also mask the individual’s true level of impairment.

Misinterpretation of callousness: In some cases, behaviors resulting from FASD symptoms might be mistaken as a choice rather than as a result of the disorders. The social and cognitive deficits of individuals with FASD can contribute to problematic behaviors being misinterpreted as premeditated or manipulative. In fact, many of the behaviors exhibited by individuals with FASD are the direct result of deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure.

Screening and assessment

The combination of nuanced symptomatology and diagnostic comorbidity makes the screening and diagnosis process for FASD difficult.

Diagnostic terminology: FASD is an all-encompassing term that includes fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder and alcohol-related birth defects. In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM), neurodevelopmental disorder-associated with prenatal alcohol exposure has been added as a condition for further study. This is the first appearance of FASD-related symptoms in the DSM, which means mental health professionals can now diagnose prenatal alcohol exposure.

Missed and misdiagnosis: Missed and misdiagnoses of FASD may explain, at least in part, the limited awareness of the disorders among medical and mental health professionals. A lack of systematic education and training on FASD contributes to this situation. As a result, many children, youth and adults go unidentified and are subsequently unable to take advantage of advanced medical and psychological treatment and services that could render a better quality of life.

Detection difficulties: Another factor that likely contributes to the missed and misdiagnoses of FASD is the fact that these disorders are difficult to identify. Why is that? Visible indicators such as morphological signs are not always present, whereas cognitive deficits are difficult to detect using standardized intelligence measures. This is problematic because individuals with FASD who present with no outward signs of facial feature abnormalities can still possess severe neurobehavioral deficits. In fact, diagnosis of prenatal alcohol exposure becomes increasingly difficult as children grow into adolescence and adulthood. Specifically, many of the physical features of prenatal alcohol exposure fade as children grow physically. Furthermore, the availability of birth mothers and records decrease with time. As a result, many professionals and researchers have called FASD a “hidden disability.”

Importance of identification: Assessment and identification of FASD are essential because the likelihood of impairment related to alcohol exposure increases significantly with each subsequent pregnancy. Identification of these disorders in a first pregnancy provides a viable point of intervention to help prevent alcohol use in future pregnancies.

Treatment

Even in cases in which the individual has been accurately diagnosed with FASD, treatment can be challenging.

Problems with cognitive-based treatments: Individuals with FASD have cognitive (e.g., memory, understanding cause-and-effect), social (e.g., comprehending social cues) and adaptive (e.g., problem-solving ability, generalizing skills) deficits that complicate their participation in cognitive-based treatment. Likewise, insight-based therapy approaches are not encouraged with this population. Therapeutic approaches that incorporate modeling, coaching, teaching and skill building may be most effective with these individuals.

Problems with treatment adherence: Individuals with FASD may benefit more from treatment in structured residential facilities than in outpatient facilities because of the cognitive deficits associated with FASD. Should an outpatient program be the only option, odds of treatment success may be improved by maximizing program structure and tailoring treatment plans to the individual.

Conclusion

The disorders under the FASD umbrella are complex and lifelong. They are characterized by an array of adaptive, behavioral, emotional, executive, physical and social impairments. Considering the prevalence rates of FASD in the United States, it is highly likely that mental health professionals will come into frequent contact with individuals impacted by these disorders. Unfortunately, these disorders often go unrecognized and undiagnosed by many mental health professionals.

Other than simply improving identification of individuals with FASD, another essential step for mental health professionals is to better understand the various challenges and deficits faced by this population on a daily basis. To combat the status quo, mental health professionals are encouraged to seek training on this complex topic and consult with FASD experts when necessary. Taking this path forward will minimize the likelihood of negative short- and long-term outcomes for this population.

 

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Jerrod Brown is the treatment director for Pathways Counseling Center Inc., which provides programs and services benefiting individuals affected by mental illness and addictions. He is also the founder and CEO of the American Institute for the Advancement of Forensic Studies and the editor-in-chief of Forensic Scholars Today. He holds graduate certificates in autism spectrum disorder, other health disabilities and traumatic brain injuries, and is certified as a fetal alcohol spectrum disorders trainer. Contact him at Jerrod01234Brown@live.com.

 

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

Counseling Today reviews unsolicited articles written by American Counseling Association members. To access writing guidelines and tips for having your article accepted for publication, go to ct.counseling.org/feedback.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Homelessness: A counselor’s role in alleviating a complex systemic issue

By Zach Bruns and Cody Andrews

How would you know if your client is homeless or at risk of becoming homeless? For counselors working in school or community settings, this seems like a simple question to answer. In reality, homelessness is a complex status that may be layered with shame, guilt, addiction, trauma, family strife, legal pitfalls, economic and employment barriers, and inadequate physical and mental health treatment.

As professional counselors, we are challenged with trying to meet the psychological and emotional needs of our clients. How do we properly treat individuals with mental health symptoms whose needs are so intricately interwoven into personal and environmental factors, especially housing instability? The professional research correlating homelessness and mental health counseling is surprisingly minimal (although not nonexistent), whereas the efficacy of current popular psychotherapy techniques (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, motivational interviewing) has been repeatedly demonstrated throughout research literature. Therefore, it is reasonable to ask: Is psychotherapy alone enough to adequately help individuals living in homelessness or without permanent housing? We will attempt to answer that question in this article while emphasizing the importance of instilling hope in the lives of our clients.

As an American Counseling Association member and a licensed professional counselor and substance abuse counselor in Wisconsin, I (Zach Bruns) have the privilege of working as a mental health clinician on a multidisciplinary team that serves individuals who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless in Milwaukee County. Our nonprofit agency, Outreach Community Health Centers, receives funding from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to run a Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness (PATH) program (see bit.ly/2hcldEg). We do not have all the answers and resources to solve the systemic societal issues of homelessness, but I would like to share my insights on practical ways to help individuals who are living in homelessness or at risk of homelessness.

Let’s start with the basic concepts of homelessness. Each community in the United States has different access to resources for people experiencing homelessness. Smaller rural communities may rely heavily on faith-based organizations to assist individuals experiencing homelessness or economic hardship. Larger urban communities such as Milwaukee often have emergency shelters, open year-round or seasonally, that cater to specific populations (e.g., survivors of domestic violence, single women, women with children, families, single men). Depending on a shelter’s funding source — i.e., private or governmental — shelters may enforce their own rules or be required to abide by certain rules and regulations that dictate who can and cannot be admitted into their shelter, how long residents can stay and what services are offered to individuals or families during their shelter stay. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) also organizes collaborative countywide Continuum of Care programs throughout the United States. These programs seek to provide services to those who are homeless, including helping individuals, unaccompanied youth and families transition into housing (see bit.ly/27ioSpd).

Emergency shelters that receive funding through HUD are expected to track the types of services they provide to individuals and the dates of shelter stays. HUD also funds permanent housing programs such as the Rapid Re-housing (see bit.ly/1MtqB19) and Housing First (see bit.ly/1HGeOsl) initiatives, which are required to provide documentation of a client’s homeless status before enrolling an individual or family in services. HUD created criteria for classifying homelessness into four categories (see bit.ly/1Ir9R9v): literally homeless, imminent risk of homelessness, homeless under other federal statutes and fleeing domestic violence. Individuals are placed into housing programs based on their category of homelessness, the length of time they have been homeless (e.g., 12 months or more in the past three years) and their documented disability status.

With this general background of homelessness in mind, how can counselors provide hope and encouragement and help our clients who are struggling with housing instability?

Primary health care. Help your clients get connected to a primary care doctor. This is vitally important because many (but not all) individuals who are homeless or at risk of homelessness have not had a recent physical exam or have unaddressed medical issues. You may be able to make an internal referral if you are affiliated with a medical clinic. Otherwise, you may need to help these clients research clinics that accept their insurance (if insured) or clinics that accept uninsured clients or work on a sliding fee scale. 

Psychiatry services. Not all clients’ mental health symptoms rise to a level requiring medication management just because they are homeless or at risk of being homeless. However, many individuals can benefit from the therapeutic effects of psychotropic medications as prescribed by a psychiatrist, advanced practice nurse prescriber or other credentialed prescriber. Depending on where you practice as a counselor, psychiatric services may be difficult to access or feature long wait lists. A primary care physician may be an alternative option, depending on your client’s mental health needs. A primary care doctor may be able to prescribe psychotropic medications for common mental health diagnoses such as mild to moderate mood disorders. Consider asking your clients to sign a release of information so that you can communicate with their doctor and coordinate appropriate services for them.    

Public benefits. If your clients are living in poverty and struggling to secure consistent employment and stable housing, they may benefit from public benefits. Help your clients enroll in and utilize benefit programs such as Medicaid or state-based health insurance, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and unemployment insurance. If you are not the right person to assist clients with these tasks, refer them to an agency in your area that helps with public benefits. Also consider researching additional special benefits that may be available in your area. For example, SAMHSA’s SOAR program helps individuals who are homeless and living with a mental illness apply for and increase their chances of successfully obtaining Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits (see bit.ly/2eM4YPr).

Emergency shelter. If your community has a coordinated entry system for shelter, you may need to help clients make calls for shelter services, especially if this is their first time experiencing homelessness and they are feeling scared, ashamed or hesitant to ask for help. In Milwaukee County, most shelter bed openings are currently coordinated through IMPACT 2-1-1, which can be accessed via phone or online chat. Private shelters follow different rules and often accept individuals who present to a shelter in person. We recommend that you call the shelter in advance to check for current bed openings.

Disability documentation. Unless it’s your initial intake session with your client, you likely have already completed a formal intake process, including using relevant evidence-based screening tools, so you now have a sense of the mental health needs and issues that affect your client’s quality of life. The next step to helping your client is to vouch for your client in writing. Many supportive housing programs require documentation from a medical or mental health professional noting the individual’s current medical or mental health diagnosis. Work with your client to obtain housing application paperwork, and offer to write the client a letter on your agency’s letterhead documenting any disabilities that you are qualified to diagnose.

Food and clothing (and maybe a sleeping bag). As counselors, sometimes we forget about the physiological and safety needs at the bottom of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs pyramid. Consider obtaining or creating a list of local community resources, including food pantries, free meal sites and clothing banks, to share with your clients. Many secondhand clothing stores, such as Goodwill and St. Vincent de Paul, offer voucher programs for people in need of clothing and furniture. Consider reaching out to local churches, temples, mosques, synagogues or other nonprofits to request donations of material goods that your clients may need, such as personal hygiene supplies, coats or jackets, boots, blankets or even sleeping bags. 

Transportation. Transportation can be a major barrier to a client obtaining and keeping employment and attending regular appointments such as counseling sessions, supervised visits with children and apartment showings. In Wisconsin, individuals with Medicaid can qualify for assistance with transportation for medical-related services, usually via public transportation (if available) or contracted transportation services. Some cities also offer discounted public transportation for seniors, individuals with Medicare or persons with qualifying disabilities. In Milwaukee, our PATH team helps qualifying individuals apply for a GO Pass, a discounted bus pass for county residents older than 65 or for younger residents who receive SSI or SSDI, or who have a veterans disability designation and also have Medicaid or SNAP benefits.

Cell phone. A cell phone is a simple everyday device that most of us take for granted. However, if your client is living on the streets, under a bridge, in his or her car or even “couch surfing” with friends or family, a phone can be that client’s lifeline to the outside world. If your client is enrolled in public benefits, he or she likely qualifies for a free government-issued phone. You can help clients apply for a cell phone online through programs such as SafeLink Wireless (see bit.ly/1ISUYOD) or in person at local cell phone retail stores (call first to check availability).   

Long-term case management. We all have worked with difficult clients — individuals with complex mental and physical health needs whose level of care may extend beyond the scope of outpatient counseling treatment. To better support these clients, consider submitting a referral to a long-term case management program in your county. In Milwaukee County, the Milwaukee County Behavioral Health Division contracts with community agencies to offer three different types of case management programs for people whose primary diagnosis is related to mental health (see bit.ly/2q1uGSl). For individuals whose main diagnosis relates to physical health, there are additional agencies and case management programs, such as Family Care programs (see bit.ly/2hKeRg8), that offer services.      

In conclusion, psychotherapy is not enough to treat all the mental, social, emotional and environmental aspects surrounding individuals or families who are experiencing homelessness. By stepping outside the traditional boundaries of a counselor’s role, you can greatly benefit and encourage your clients as they progress along their recovery journeys. By using your person-centered counseling skills, you will encourage and build up hope in your clients, especially if they are struggling with issues surrounding homelessness. Remember the beloved Carl Rogers, who urged us all to treat our clients with genuineness, empathy and unconditional positive regard.

 

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Zach Bruns, a licensed professional counselor and substance abuse counselor, has been practicing community-based clinical counseling since 2013. He serves as the mental health clinician for the multidisciplinary Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness team at Outreach Community Health Centers in Milwaukee. He also works through Dungarvin Inc. and the Milwaukee County Behavioral Health Division’s Community Consultation Team to provide mobile crisis services to individuals diagnosed with intellectual/developmental disabilities and mental illnesses, their providers and loved ones. Contact him at zacharyb@
orchc-milw.org
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Cody Andrews has served as the lead service provider for the Street Outreach Team at Outreach Community Health Centers since June 2015. He is starting graduate school this fall to obtain a master’s degree in social work and from there hopes to pursue a doctoral degree in social welfare. His research interests include housing interventions, social support systems of people experiencing homelessness and homeless outreach. Contact him at codya@orchc-milw.org.

 

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

Counseling Today reviews unsolicited articles written by American Counseling Association members. To access writing guidelines and tips for having an article accepted for publication, go to ct.counseling.org/feedback.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Vocational counseling in HIV/AIDS communities

By Michael B. Drew July 6, 2017

Following a career-ending injury as a firefighter captain, I embarked on a new adventure as a doctoral student, attending the University of Georgia’s counselor education and student personnel services program. In a leap of faith, my wife and our three small children moved from Rochester, New York, to Suwanee, Georgia, where we quite literally knew no one. I remember thinking at the time that trying to make a career change like this made running into a burning building look easy. Fortunately, I was assigned to a rural HIV/AIDS clinic. The people I was about to meet there would welcome me and ultimately change my life.

As I stepped nervously through the clinic door and my eyes adjusted to the small, dimly lit room, I was greeted by a friendly man seated behind a makeshift desk. During the months that followed, I came to know him — and the important role that work played in his life while living with HIV/AIDS — well. For him, I think that returning to work by answering phones and greeting new visitors to the clinic represented a way to contribute to his community. His bright smile and warm sense of humor made him perfect for the job.

As we shook hands, he jokingly pointed to a piece of tape that stretched across the back of an office chair. On the piece of tape, his name was proudly displayed in handwritten marker. “This is my chair. … They let me work here!” he exclaimed.

Reflecting on that first day, I’ve come to realize that this was more than just an office chair — it symbolized his success in reclaiming a professional identity. What I learned from this inspiring man has since helped me reclaim my own sense of professional identity as I shifted from being a firefighter to a mental health counselor. This article is dedicated to his memory.

 

Professional identity

Each of us possesses many intersecting identities. Some of these identities are obvious, and others not so much. For example, if I didn’t share with someone my disabled status, it is unlikely that they would be able to tell because my injuries are internal, and I go about my day doing everything possible to keep it this way. But when I do share my story, people usually thank me for my service because for many, firefighters are like heroes.

I think everyone should enjoy this type of validation because we are all living courageously with different challenges. Some of these challenges include health problems or sudden loss of employment. In managing the complexities of HIV/AIDS, both of these factors are compounded, and the very real threat of social stigma can discourage a return to work, compromising personal and professional identity.

In all honesty, I can tell you that I’m still affected by a passing fire engine because firefighting is such a deeply internalized identity for me. Similarly, during initial intake and screening, vocational counselors may explore the meaning of work in the lives of their clients with HIV/AIDS, paying special attention to differences before and after infection, and any existential questioning in the wake of serious illness.

For some of these clients, HIV/AIDS was the impetus for them leaving work in the first place, resulting in changes to personal and professional identity. This means that counselors should help these clients explore feelings of loss in social and financial capital associated with their former work environments, as well as strategies for establishing new supports. Other important concerns include management of strict medication routines, side effects resulting from medications, fatigue, exposure to work-related stressors and the risk of contracting outside infections occurring in the workplace. By carefully exploring a range of vocational challenges with these clients, and the role of work in their lives, counselors can facilitate the process of forming new professional identities.

 

Situating vocational needs

Re-entering the workforce is increasingly possible for clients with HIV/AIDS, thanks in large part to continued advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy. These medications are used in combination to reduce the progression of HIV by preventing the virus from making copies of itself.

Thanks in part to such promising medical advances, vocational counselors can begin work with these clients by exploring myriad career opportunities and matching them with each client’s unique skills, interests and health needs. I should note that although returning to work may reflect a significant victory for people living with HIV/AIDS, counselors still need to understand the potential challenges facing these clients related to workplace discrimination, insurance denial and managing health care while working and caring for loved ones. Overlooking these realities risks setting up your clients for possible failure and, even worse, interruptions in health-sustaining insurance coverage.

A vocational model for the HIV/AIDS community (graphic designed by Michael B. Drew)

 

Meeting basic needs

President Obama’s National HIV/AIDS Strategy (2010) explicitly called for increasing career development for people living with HIV/AIDS and using innovative employment strategies to expand potential career options. However, most AIDS service organizations and their clients depend on federal funding provided under the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act, including for life-sustaining medications. This leaves many clients feeling threatened under the current Trump administration and the possibility of budget cuts.

A possible consequence of this fear of lost benefits is that many people living with HIV/AIDS may feel pressure to find work that provides private health coverage. At present, federal funding is allocated for housing, medication and legal assistance, leaving very few clinics with the resources or vocational expertise to address the challenges associated with returning to work. For outside agencies that do offer career or vocational counseling services, most are not familiar or equipped to serve the unique needs of the HIV/AIDS community. This leaves many clients afraid to access these services when having to negotiate work accommodations, maintaining a strict medication schedule and coping with episodic symptoms that require frequent and unexpected leaves of absence.

For these reasons, vocational counseling in the HIV/AIDS setting is inherently complicated. This reflects the need to include such specialized services in the familiar and trusted space of AIDS service organizations, where professional networks and community partnerships are already in place.

 

The role of legal services

In addition to these formidable challenges, HIV criminalization laws currently exist in roughly half of the 50 U.S. states, leaving clients at risk for further marginalization in the workplace following intimate partner complaints and subsequent arrests and convictions. In some cases, these arrests have even resulted in prison sentences and mandated sex offender status, making a return to work exceedingly difficult.

This unfortunate reality is even more problematic for women, who are often diagnosed with HIV/AIDS before a male partner due in large part to having regular gynecological exams. This means that women are at additional risk for legal prosecution for “knowingly infecting their partners” despite the possibility that the virus originated from an accuser. This perpetuates a veil of secrecy, adding to the complexity of HIV/AIDS treatment options, particularly among infected mothers who may face persecution for passing the virus on to their children. Not surprisingly, such discriminatory practices become disincentives for HIV screening and follow-up care. Furthermore, surveillance reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) reflect that African American women represent a disproportionate number of newly infected cases.

Given that more women than men are responsible for the care of children and elderly family members, vocational counselors should explore flexible work opportunities that align with individual needs. This should include legal counsel from the local community that is available for clients who wish to make informed decisions about returning to work.

 

Exploring career interests and abilities

In the wake of my firefighting injury, and facing a lifelong disability, I can attest to the significance of vocational counseling as an integral part of the healing process. This is a familiar narrative among people living with HIV/AIDS, who sometimes struggle to explain why they have not returned to work given their outward appearance of health. Counselors can help these clients respond to any concerns involving gaps in employment history, the need to update work skills, résumé writing, professional attire and preparation for job interviews.

This need for personalized vocational counseling remains largely unmet, however. The counseling profession can respond to this increasing demand for career-related services by attending HIV/AIDS conferences and workshops to learn more about living and working with the virus. Community-based partnerships are also invaluable. Many AIDS service organizations provide internship opportunities in which counseling students can gain field experience and insights into the process of cultivating new personal and professional identities.

 

Flexible career opportunities

Many individuals must manage episodic symptoms associated with HIV/AIDS. In response, vocational counselors can expand these clients’ career opportunities by helping them connect with employers that offer flexible scheduling or the possibility of working from home.

In dealing with HIV/AIDS, episodic symptoms may remain dormant for years, only to reappear and become disruptive to work scheduling and the person’s ability to perform routine tasks. Many clients are fearful that under such circumstances, employers will expect them to share personal information when they are absent from work. Managing personal privacy surrounding any chronic illness is challenging, and in the case of HIV/AIDS, an added threat of stigma remains.

It is important for counselors to share information with their clients concerning extended Medicare and Trial Work Period programs, which are designed with flexibility for people who have disabilities. This may help to alleviate concerns about losing Social Security disability benefits, which is a common theme among people living with HIV/AIDS when contemplating a return to work.

 

 

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Michael B. Drew is a retired firefighter captain from upstate New York. Following a career-ending injury, he completed a bachelor’s degree in advanced fire administration and a master’s degree in mental health counseling and is currently a doctoral candidate in counselor education and student personnel services at the University of Georgia. Contact him at mbd01283@uga.edu.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

‘That I may serve’

By Bethany Bray July 5, 2017

Counselors and counselor educators who have worked with Gerard Lawson describe him as an insightful, genuine and approachable leader who has a gift for listening to others and seeing to the heart of problems to find solutions. At the same time, Lawson, an associate professor of counselor education at Virginia Tech who became the American Counseling Association’s 66th president July 1, is known for having a great sense of humor and not taking himself too seriously.

Nicole R. Hill says she will never forget one particular scene from several years ago when Lawson was president of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES), a division of ACA. Lawson walked into his presidential reception at the division’s 2011 annual conference in Nashville, Tennessee, wearing a cowboy-style shirt emblazoned with rhinestones — which he had affixed to the shirt to spell out ACES. To further complete his ensemble, Lawson wore a giant belt buckle, says Hill, who was serving as president-elect of ACES that year.

“I just have this image [of him in that shirt] burned into my mind,” Hill says chuckling. “He really is someone who is willing to put himself out there and has a strong articulated vision for what he thinks needs to happen … but he also just enjoys the humanity side of leadership and professional service. [His approach is], ‘We’re here, we’re working hard and hopefully changing the world, but let’s do it in a way that is celebrating who we are as human beings and we’re just having a good time as well.”

“That’s really how you transform the relationships that you build, those partnerships that you cultivate,” says Hill, who is dean of the College of Education and Human Services at Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania and president-elect of Chi Sigma Iota, the international honor society of counseling.

Lawson is serving a one-year term as ACA’s president through June 30.

 

Learning, listening, leading

Lawson, who is also a past president of the Virginia Counselors Association, says he never intended to get a doctorate in counselor education and supervision. He began his counseling career working in community agencies, child protective services and with youth in the Virginia court system. He says he always thought he would focus on practice work with clients and clinical supervision.

That changed, however, when Lawson took a few classes at the College of William & Mary to

Lawson speaks at ACA’s 2017 Annual Conference & Expo in San Francisco (Photo by Paul Sakuma Photography).

work toward counselor licensure after earning his master’s degree at Longwood College. He was given an opportunity to teach as part of an internship at William & Mary, and Lawson says he “fell in love with it.”

Now, after 15 years as a professor at Virginia Tech, Lawson says one of the things he most enjoys about the job is seeing students grow and find their own voice as counselors. In turn, he says, his students have taught him that there is no one “right” way to be a good counselor.

“They [students] come in wanting to rescue people, wanting to be the one that rides in and saves the day. That’s not really what we do as counselors. We walk along with people, but we don’t ride in and rescue them. That’s one of the things I enjoy watching — how they learn where their strengths are and to walk that path with their clients,” Lawson says. “One of the things that usually happens — for all of us — is that what they think of as their vulnerabilities turn out to be their strengths. That’s always fun to watch, that self-exploration of finding that what’s best for them is best for their clients.

“One of the things that has been the most eye-opening for me over the years is that there is no one way to do this job well. There are all kinds of personalities, backgrounds and belief systems that come into this profession, and they can all become stellar counselors. There are lots of different ways that you can be really good at this. Once you see [students] find their voice, whatever that voice sounds like, that’s when they hit a new gear, and the growth that comes with that is a lot of fun to watch.”

 

Paying it forward

Virginia Tech — as well as Lawson’s tenure there — is inextricably connected to the tragedy of April 16, 2007, when a student killed 32 of his peers and professors in a mass shooting on campus before killing himself. The incident stood as America’s most fatal shooting by a single individual until the Pulse nightclub shooting in Orlando, Florida, in June 2016.

Lawson, then an assistant professor at Virginia Tech, remembers getting involved in response efforts the day of the shooting, as soon as the campuswide lockdown was lifted. At first, he counseled faculty and staff members who needed someone to talk to. In the week that followed, he worked with victims’ families, offering everything from psychological first aid to assistance with the logistics of making funeral arrangements.

Lawson then helped coordinate the campus’ mental health response. When classes resumed at Virginia Tech, there were 600 counselors on campus, he remembers. For three years after the tragedy, Lawson taught half time; the other half of his duties were devoted to recovery efforts on campus. This included facilitating wellness activities for students and workshops for faculty members on how to handle sensitive questions and discussions in the classroom.

“What do you do when your students want to talk about the shooting in class? For counseling faculty, we wouldn’t think twice about that. But for [faculty members] in the engineering program, it might not be second nature for them,” Lawson says. “We talked about reflective listening and other skills, and also how to take care of themselves. In the immediate aftermath, a lot of it was about normalizing what people are experiencing — the fact that they can’t stop thinking about it or have trouble sleeping. That’s normal.”

Lawson remains instrumental in organizing remembrance events — and ensuring that counselors are available — on each anniversary of the shooting. He also helped Virginia Tech develop and initiate a disaster mental health plan, which the campus didn’t have prior to the 2007 tragedy.

Thinking back on the past 10 years and the various ways he has tried to help the Virginia Tech community recover from the tragedy, Lawson puts it simply: There have been opportunities for him to share skills that he is good at — counseling and helping people — and he knew he should take those opportunities.

“Virginia Tech’s motto is ‘that I may serve,’ and that has always been how I approach this work, whether that’s the client who is sitting in front of me, or the community that I’m living in or the university that I work for,” Lawson says. “That’s an important part of how I’ve made sense of this.

“Virginia Tech was so well-supported by the counseling world, and the world more broadly, following the shooting, that I feel like I have an obligation to pay that forward. If there are ways that the skills that I have, the things that I have to offer, are helpful or meaningful, I want to be sure that there are opportunities for me to provide that. That’s a small way to repay the way we were supported. We’ve felt love from every corner of the world. If there are ways that I can help to pay that forward, I think that’s part of the responsibility as well.”

There is no doubt that the tragedy — and Lawson’s ongoing role in the university’s response to it — changed the trajectory of his career and his personal perspective.

“The reality is that if something like that can happen at Virginia Tech, something like that can happen anywhere,” Lawson says. “You have two choices: You can either be paralyzed with fear, or you can realize that you need to live your life. You need to be willing to do the things you want to do, the things that are important to you, and not get drawn in to things that are less important. Make sure you’re using the time that you have wisely and taking advantage of opportunities around you.”

 

In good hands

The many titles and accolades on Lawson’s résumé would suggest that he is a gifted leader, practitioner, educator, counselor supervisor and conference speaker. But those who know Lawson well speak of other attributes: his sense of humility, his approachability, his authenticity.

Bryan Carr, the coordinator for school counseling in the Chesterfield County Public Schools system in Virginia, calls Lawson “a leader by consensus and collaboration.”

Lawson and his wife, Jennifer, at the Mauna Kea Observatory on the Big Island of Hawaii following ACA’s 2014 conference in Honolulu (Courtesy photo).

“The organization [ACA] is in good hands,” says Carr, who worked with Lawson on the boards of the Virginia Counselors Association (VCA) and the VCA Foundation. “He is a good listener. He is not one who needs to be heard. But when he speaks, people listen. … He’s approachable and sincerely out to better whatever group or organization he’s a part of. He’s always able and willing to assist. He sacrifices more of his time and energy than most people will, with a sense of compulsion toward making things better along the way.”

“In stressful situations, he’s able to put things into perspective pretty quickly,” Carr adds. “He’s able to disarm a situation and help with problem-solving.”

Carr worked closely with Lawson roughly five years ago, after Carr’s school district experienced a series of student suicides. The district invited Lawson to help with response efforts. He put in more than a year of intense work, both at the local and state levels, all pro bono, Carr says. Part of the work included creating and rolling out a training model for faculty and staff districtwide to recognize and report the signs of suicide risk.

“We did a lot of soul-searching on how to best approach [the situation],” Carr remembers. “Having his wise counsel and his ability to listen brought perspective to a complex issue. He helped us figure out what we needed. … He was not coming to the table saying, ‘look at what we’ve done’ [related to trauma response at Virginia Tech], but he was an honest broker at the table.”

“[Lawson] is very approachable and compassionate about what he does,” Carr continues. “He has terrific reasoning skills. … It’s easy to talk about an issue and all the complexities about it. He has a real gift to be able to cut to the chase and figure out what options exist and the best option [to choose].”

Hill notes that although Lawson has a relational, approachable style, he “doesn’t hesitate to be bold” if the circumstances call for it. He doesn’t back away from advocating for or taking a stance on issues he feels strongly about, even if his opinion may be unpopular, she says.

“He’s very good at articulating things that are hard but need to be said,” agrees Corrine Sackett, a former student of Lawson’s who is now an assistant professor and coordinator of the clinical mental health counseling program at Clemson University in South Carolina.

Hill and Sackett both cite examples from a few years ago, when Lawson waded into heated conversations that counselors were having surrounding the profession’s shift toward eventually requiring graduation from a counseling program accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) as a pathway to future counselor licensure.

Counselors were debating the issue on the Counselor Education and Supervision Network (CESNET) listserv, and Lawson chose to actively participate in the discussions and share his opinions, even though he was a candidate for ACA president and there was a risk that people would disagree with his views.

“He was very vocal but respectful and laid out his argument clearly,” says Sackett, a licensed marriage and family therapist. Lawson also listened to other posters’ perspectives and tried to see all sides of the issue, she adds.

During the same period, Lawson urged the ACES Executive Board to take a stand on the issue rather than dancing around the controversy, according to Hill. “I saw him really push us forward in a political context,” she says of the board discussions. “He didn’t want to marginalize people or disenfranchise programs, but he was able to look at the big picture and bring people together. I saw him be able to listen and hear other points of view but also set a threshold. He didn’t want to just talk about it on the board. [He said], ‘Let’s come out and say something — put down a vision.’ He was able to take a stand and say, ‘this is what we expect,’ and stand behind it.”

In addition to his leadership ability, Lawson has a gift for connecting with students, says Laura Welfare, an associate professor and program leader of counselor education at Virginia Tech. She has worked with Lawson for 10 years.

“Gerard frequently teaches our practicum and internship courses, and our master’s students are always eager to work with him,” says Welfare, a counselor supervisor and licensed professional counselor. “His calm, collected demeanor in the presence of anxious new counselors, and his knowledgeable responses to their varied concerns, gives them the confidence to embrace new challenges. He is an astute supervisor and helps students trust the counselor development process, during our program and beyond.

“One of Gerard’s gifts as a counselor and counselor educator is his ability to bring out the best in others. He understands individual and systemic issues and connects with others to empower them as they work toward their own goals. He has used his gifts as a counselor, supervisor, educator, consultant and researcher and will be able to bring those strengths to the multifaceted role of ACA president.”

Lawson served as Sackett’s supervisor and doctoral dissertation adviser at Virginia Tech. Counselors who encounter Lawson as a mentor, teacher and leader know that he truly cares about them and their growth, Sackett says.

“I have learned by his example. He has modeled so much for me without even trying to. It took me awhile to find my feet … as a teacher, but I always remembered how I felt cared for by him as a teacher, and that just goes so far,” says Sackett, who is going into her fifth year as a professor at Clemson. “As a student [at Virginia Tech], he and I could say things that would make things better in the long run, but they were hard to say. [He gave] feedback that I didn’t always want to hear, but it was important for my growth. I knew I could say things to him too that could make things better in the long run but were harder [to say] upfront. That’s an important quality in a leader, I think: honesty.”

 

The year ahead

Lawson says he is excited about the year ahead and envisions a presidency marked by advocacy. He has two areas on which he’d like to focus and create presidential task forces to address: 1) counselors performing outreach in their local communities and 2) trauma and disaster mental health counseling and response.

Lawson says the first task force is in response to the discord that has grabbed headlines in recent months, from political divisions to friction between law enforcement and the public. Counselors are skilled in fostering conversations and serving as mediators, but they often don’t think of becoming involved (or don’t know how to become involved) in such a capacity in their local communities, he says. Lawson wants to form a task force to create resources for counselors to become bridge builders and reduce misunderstandings on the local level.

Lawson introduces his dog, Jeff, to the ocean for the first time at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina (Courtesy photo).

“People are feeling disconnected from their neighbors [and] their communities, which results in misunderstandings and isolation,” Lawson says. “If the community wants to have a meeting, counselors are so well-positioned to [facilitate] that but maybe just don’t have the skills or comfort level for that. I’d like to create a task force and toolkit to support counselors throughout that process.”

For the second task force, Lawson will draw from his experience as a trauma responder at Virginia Tech and more than 10 years of volunteering in disaster mental health. ACA already has a solid partnership with the American Red Cross, facilitating training and counselor disaster response across the U.S. But Lawson thinks an opportunity exists for ACA to “fill in the gaps” beyond that partnership whenever traumatic incidents take place that aren’t natural disasters, such as violence or shootings.

“I’d like to position ACA so that we are one of the first things people think of [in trauma situations] and they know we’re a resource,” Lawson says. “We want counselors to be better trained and better prepared. We are all doing trauma work now. It used to be a specialty. Now it’s [everything from] bullying in the schools to interpersonal violence. We need to be prepared to help those folks, regardless of where they’re coming from.”

 

Listener-in-chief

Above all, Hill says she believes Lawson’s time at the helm of ACA will be marked by openness.

“I would encourage our members to reach out, share your perspectives and communicate if there’s an issue you want to address,” she says. “[Lawson] is the kind of leader who is very caring, and I think he’s the kind of leader that would want to hear from you. Reach out and engage.”

 

 

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Meet Gerard Lawson

Certifications and licenses: Licensed professional counselor, certified substance abuse counselor, national certified counselor, approved clinical supervisor, certified trauma professional

Degrees: Ph.D., counselor education and supervision, College of William & Mary; master’s degree in education, community and college counseling, Longwood College; bachelor’s in family and child development (family studies), Virginia Tech

Past leadership positions: Has served as the president of the Virginia Counselors Association, the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, the Southern Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, and the Virginia Association for Counselor Education and Supervision; co-founder of ACA’s Wellness Interest Network

What you may not know: He loves to kayak and spend time outdoors with his dog, Jeff. He is a big fan of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and the Detroit Tigers. His wife of 23 years, Jennifer, is a professional flutist with the Richmond Symphony.

 

 

 

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Bethany Bray is a staff writer and social media coordinator for Counseling Today. Contact her at bbray@counseling.org.

 

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.