Tag Archives: interdisciplinary

Wellness: Aiming for an ever-moving target

By Bethany Bray January 3, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted nearly every aspect of life, from parenting and family relationships to personal finances and career trajectories. Self-care and coping mechanisms that people previously relied on were often set aside or became harder to access because conditions related to the coronavirus were (and to a certain degree still are) in a constant state of flux. Answers to worries such as “Is it safe to go to the dentist?” or “Will I put my grandmother at risk if I visit her in person?” continue to change with each new phase of the pandemic — the initial uncertainty, the availability of vaccines, the rise of multiple variants, the reopening of schools and workplaces, and so on.

It has all made client wellness a moving target over the past two years. As a result, counselors might consider rethinking how they approach wellness — and all its dimensions — and foster collaboration with other professionals to help clients maintain their mental and physical health even as they are repeatedly thrown curveballs that interrupt their life patterns.

The domino effect

Wellness counseling looks beyond a client’s diagnosis or presenting concern, using a strengths-based approach to view clients holistically. The approach focuses not only on an individual’s mental and physical health but also on their spirituality, social connections, work life, financial situation, home environment and numerous other factors that vary slightly depending on the wellness model the practitioner uses.

And all of that — from clients’ social-emotional health to their financial stability and sexual wellness — has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic over the past two years, says Christine Ellis, a licensed professional counselor (LPC) who is the founder and clinical director of a counseling practice in Wisconsin.

Ellis’ practice uses the National Wellness Institute model, which concentrates on six dimensions of wellness: emotional, occupational, physical, social, intellectual and spiritual. Because all the dimensions of wellness are interconnected, distress in one area has a domino effect on the others, Ellis says. For example, a client who feels heightened anxiety over the safety of their children returning to in-person school might also experience weight gain and other physical manifestations of stress or increase their intake of alcohol or other substances.

These circumstances have also resulted in Ellis receiving additional referrals and seeing more new clients at her practice. That has been something of a silver lining to the pandemic’s storm cloud, she says: “People have looked at their own wellness … [and] felt, finally, for the first time, ‘OK, now I have an excuse to ask for help.’”

Ellis says she and the other counselors at her practice have been intentional about maintaining a nonjudgmental atmosphere as clients talk through their pandemic-related stressors, which often include frustrations that stem from feeling limited or disrupted in their goals or life plans.

“We have been using a ton of distress tolerance techniques during the last couple of years,” says Ellis, a member of the American Counseling Association. “It’s been hard during COVID. How do you change when everyone is stuck? … When we hear clients say, ‘that’s not possible,’ our job is to validate that and recognize it as suffering. Then, we focus on small changes.”

Equipping clients with new and different coping mechanisms and talking through what they can and cannot change has been extremely important over the past two years, Ellis says. It has all been done with an eye toward empowering clients and giving them a sense of ownership over their own wellness. For some, this also included working on identity-related issues, such as no longer being a soccer mom and taking the kids to sports activities regularly or not being as productive or successful in their career while working from home.

Ellis has found that pandemic-related stress has been acute for clients who struggle with focus or attention challenges such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. She believes anxiety and distraction have heightened for these clients because routines have been upset and there have been so many unknowns over the past two years, such as “Will I get COVID-19?” or “Will my child be able to wear their mask at school?” Young and adult clients alike have needed to go back to the drawing board to find new coping mechanisms, Ellis says, because many of the tried-and-true tools they had been using no longer worked under such extenuating circumstances.

Clients’ mental well-being also took a hit when the pandemic disrupted or canceled activities that previously boosted their wellness, such as fitness or art classes, community parenting groups and church coffee groups, Ellis notes. Helping clients identify substitutions and replacements for these activities was vital in the early days of the pandemic and continues to be important now because routines are still in flux.

Perhaps a client previously maintained their physical and social wellness by attending a favorite fitness class, but the class got canceled or they no longer feel safe attending. Under that scenario, Ellis would validate the client’s feelings of loss and ask questions to spark ideas of alternative ways to attain those same benefits. She may ask, for instance, “How can you replace your water Zumba class? What about it do you like, and how can you find that elsewhere? How can you achieve the same things that you know you value, just differently?” Perhaps the client could call or video chat with a friend from the class or set up an area in their home to exercise on their own, she suggests.

A big part of this work, Ellis notes, is helping clients make the shift from an external source of motivation (relying on a class to boost their wellness) to an internal one (finding ways to boost wellness on their own).

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Christie Kelley, an LPC who uses a wellness approach at her solo private practice in Bristol, Connecticut, says her clients have been experiencing many of the same feelings and challenges that Ellis describes. Kelley has also seen an increase in new clients recently because, she says, many people are evaluating aspects of their lives and wellness and finding areas they feel are lacking or that need changing.

Many of Kelley’s clients felt they had more options — and more motivation — to tend to their wellness at the start of the pandemic, she says. It was easier to schedule breaks to get outside and engage in physical activity with their children while they were all home together or to do exercise classes at home via Zoom. But as more schools and workplaces began to reopen, the novelty of incorporating wellness into daily life faded for many people. 

More of Kelley’s clients now view wellness as separate from or less intertwined with their daily routines, she notes. This includes approaching physical activity as one more thing to add to their to-do list rather than weaving it into the workday, such as by walking a few flights of stairs during their lunch break.

Kelley has found she needs to emphasize to clients that wellness remains an interconnected part of life. “In my area, I’m really noticing more of an impact with the pandemic now. Many of the people I’m working with are experiencing more problems and hardships now,” says Kelley, an ACA member. “Where I have seen people struggle is getting back to this ‘new normal.’ They developed some ways of being healthy in their homes during the pandemic, but now many are going back to work and struggling with balance.”

Getting creative

Many clients have needed support and guidance from a counselor to manage their wellness because so many aspects of daily life have been disrupted during the pandemic. Ellis has found it helpful for counselors and clients alike to consistently seek fresh ways of looking at challenges and stressors.

If clients are feeling stuck or unmotivated, Ellis suggests asking them to name one thing they could do within the hour or that day to boost their wellness. It might be as simple as drinking some water, planning a healthy meal or finding a book to read that gives them more information and ideas on a wellness topic.

“We’re still going through this wave. … Things are not how we want them to be every day. How do we deal with that [through] a compassion-focused lens?” Ellis asks. “Have a beginner’s mind every day. Promoting how to look at something [as if it’s] the first time brings a freshness. That big picture view keeps us from being stuck and getting stuck. … Get away from the entrenched perspective.”

“We [counselors] can help clients see things that way: They can simply put their shoes on and walk around the block. You don’t have to run a mile, but take one step toward wellness,” Ellis says. “Wellness is also about allowing ourselves to sit with the discomfort of an emotion or feeling and simply working to observe it, asking it what it has to teach us — as [Buddhist teacher] Pema Chödrön’s work models — and then it can be used as fuel to motivate a new wellness behavior, activity, attitude or belief.”

Kristin Bruns, an associate professor and college counseling and student affairs program coordinator at Youngstown State University in Ohio, stresses that counselors not only need to get creative with their approach to client wellness but also ensure that the work is client driven and culturally sensitive. Counselors shouldn’t make assumptions about what wellness activities might or might not work for a client, Bruns says.

For example, a client may not feel comfortable or safe going back to the gym even if it has reopened. Or they may have lost their job during the pandemic and no longer have the financial means for a gym membership. A counselor’s role is to explore that with the client and prompt conversations to find other avenues that will work for them, Bruns says. An important aspect of this work is for counselors to be aware of resources within their communities — especially free and low-cost offerings — such as programs and groups at libraries, community centers and local nonprofits, she adds.

“Also, ask clients what their self-care looked like before the pandemic, what it looks like now and what would they like to change. That can help us work with them to figure out what they want to reengage in and what they might want to look different,” says Bruns, a licensed professional clinical counselor who sees clients part time and uses a wellness approach at a private practice outside of Akron, Ohio. “Use those basic counseling skills — really listen to what the client is telling us, and help [them] think of things that might fill that need. It’s easy to want to throw out suggestions, but it’s more powerful when clients come up with [solutions] themselves. It’s really powerful when we let the client be creative.”

Kelley agrees that it’s helpful to ask clients about their self-care prior to the pandemic and to work on “translating” it for the current environment. Sometimes there is a need to expand clients’ understanding of self-care, she notes.

In the past two years, Kelley has noticed that her clients’ view of self-care has oscillated between basic tasks such as showering and getting dressed to more cliché ideas such as doing yoga — endeavors, she says, that are helpful but not the be-all, end-all.

Kelley begins conversations about self-care by asking clients about their hobbies and interests and the things that bring them joy. Then, she uses one of their answers to apply a clinical focus. For example, a client who loves tea or coffee can use their time spent with a warm mug to pause and do a mindfulness exercise.

“I’ve needed to challenge people’s understanding of self-care and wanting it to fit into a mold. My challenge is to try and help them expand their thinking process, their idea of what self-care is,” Kelley says. “Self-care is anything that you do for yourself; it doesn’t have to be this one thing. I try and help them have a broader idea of it.”

The use of telebehavioral health during the pandemic has helped in this realm, Kelley notes. Doing sessions via video has given her insights into clients’ environments, including elements that have sparked ideas to boost wellness and self-care. In one case, a client had set a goal to incorporate more mindfulness into his life, and during one of their video sessions, Kelley and the client started discussing a seating area in his house, visible in the camera, that he could use for that purpose.

“I never even [asked], ‘Could you use that spot [for mindfulness]?’ … [The conversation] just naturally went there. One of his goals for that week was to prepare it and use it for wellness,” Kelley recalls. “I’ve really been trying to work with people in a very organic and personal fashion, as opposed to a generalized idea of wellness. … It’s one thing to ask if they have a pet at intake [during in-person counseling] but another to see a pet on screen during video therapy. You can incorporate it into conversation or therapy goals. It’s something that they already [got] enjoyment [from], but now they can think of it as self-care.”

The use of telebehavioral health has also prompted Kelley to get creative and modify the wellness-focused activities she previously used with clients during in-person sessions. When teaching breathing techniques, she encourages clients to lie down or otherwise get comfortable off screen, if space allows, while she talks them through the exercise.

“It has been helpful for clients because they’re in their own space and are comfortable, but it also shows that they can do it in their home,” Kelley says. “It’s not as disconnected as sitting in therapy and having the thought that they’ll do it at home, but then they get busy and don’t. They’re more likely to do it outside of therapy [sessions] when they’ve already done it
at home.”

Addressing all aspects of wellness

As the pandemic drags on, clients are processing its effects more and more. Wendy Thorup-Pavlick, an ACA member with a wellness coaching practice in the western suburbs of Chicago, says many of her clients have become more aware of their own wellness. As a whole, they are also more open to a mind-body focus to help them make changes and find solutions for symptoms related to physical and mental stress, sleep problems, mental health challenges and other issues that have spiked during the pandemic.

“For many clients, the pandemic was the catalyst toward embracing a healthier, more balanced lifestyle,” says Thorup-Pavlick, an LPC and adjunct faculty counselor at the College of DuPage in Illinois. “Good health and wellness are more than the absence of disease or illness; it is multidimensional and interconnected. Wellness is a conscious, self-directed pathway to optimal living, and integrating a wellness approach allows clients to use wellness principles to build resilience and thrive amidst life’s challenges. Adopting wellness practices provides additional support to clients who may be feeling abnormal and continuous levels of stress caused by the pandemic.”

This unprecedented time affords counselors an opportunity to dig into wellness-focused techniques with clients to help them cope with stress, manage their emotions and attend to the whole self. One such tool involves keeping a food-mood diary, says Thorup-Pavlick, a certified health and wellness coach. Her clients have benefited from recording their food intake and sleep habits, emotions, moods and other mental and physical symptoms to observe patterns and connections during the pandemic.

Thorup-Pavlick says clients have particularly needed support related to sleep hygiene during the past two years. Adequate sleep is tied to wellness in numerous ways, including supporting a healthy immune system and cardiovascular health, improving cognitive function and emotion regulation, and managing weight gain, she notes. Counselors can provide psychoeducation that it is not only important to prioritize sleep and maintain a consistent sleep schedule but also helpful to limit caffeine intake before bedtime, engage in physical activity during the day, keep naps short, and foster a relaxing environment in their sleeping area, including turning off computer and smartphone screens.

Motivational interviewing can be a helpful technique for asking clients about their sleep habits and finding out what they already know about sleep hygiene. If the client is open to it, the counselor can offer more information, Thorup-Pavlick says. If clients wear a fitness-tracking device, such as a Fitbit, asking about the sleep data it has collected can also be a way to introduce the topic, she notes.

In addition, Thorup-Pavlick often asks clients the following questions:

  • What does your sleep schedule look like?
  • Tell me about your sleep environment.
  • How rested do you feel on a scale of 1-10?
  • What’s working well for you at the moment?
  • What isn’t working well at the moment?
  • On a scale of 1-10, how motivated are you to improve your sleep habits?
  • What do you think you should do first?
  • Whatever your first step is, is there anything that might stop you from doing it?

“The idea is not to become a sleep expert but to know when the client may need to seek additional medical attention for sleep-related issues and how those issues may impact the client’s emotional well-being,” Thorup-Pavlick says.

Those interviewed for this article agreed that counselors need to be proactive and ask clients about aspects of their wellness — including use of alcohol and other substances — both at intake and regularly throughout therapy.

Counselors can also prompt discussions about wellness with clients by creating a wellness wheel in sessions, Thorup-Pavlick adds. During this exercise, the practitioner guides the client to create or fill in a circle diagram based on the health of the different dimensions of wellness in their life, including occupational, physical, social, intellectual, spiritual, emotional and other realms.

“When life is in balance, the wellness wheel will be round; when out of balance, the wellness wheel may look and feel a little more like a flat tire,” she explains. “It can inform the mental health practitioner how ‘in balance’ each wellness dimension is for the client. … The wellness wheel is a tool that will help identify how clients view themselves and how satisfied they are in each dimension of wellness.”

From there, Thorup-Pavlick often prompts clients to create a “wellness vision” for themselves that connects to their core values. This involves talking through not only a client’s desired wellness outcomes but also the challenges and knowledge gaps they might face and the strengths, motivators and supports they can rely on as they work toward their goals. Creating a personalized plan helps clients make sustainable progress toward wellness, she notes.

“The focus should be on what the client wants to achieve and not what they want to eliminate,” says Thorup-Pavlick, a member of the Illinois Counseling Association and a board member of the Illinois College Counseling Association. “As clients begin to get excited about their desired wellness outcomes, they can incorporate behavioral changes that will move them toward achieving these wellness goals.”

Forging connections with the medical community

In addition to the physical health concerns related to the coronavirus itself, the pandemic has caused a wave of negative outcomes that might have been prevented or caught earlier if people hadn’t postponed or skipped routine health appointments and screenings, such as mammograms and colonoscopies, during the past two years. These distressing outcomes are higher among people of color and those of lower socioeconomic status. 

Professional counselors have a role to play in ensuring that clients are tending to all aspects of their wellness, including physical health, as the pandemic continues to disrupt life patterns, says Deanna Bridge Najera, an ACA member who works as a physician assistant (PA) in emergency medicine at a hospital in Maryland.

People have been canceling or delaying medical care for a wide variety of reasons, including resistance or discomfort with telemedicine or the inability to pay for services or prescriptions, Najera says. At the same time, medical offices have been overwhelmed, so it can be hard to get an appointment, and some have stopped accepting new patients, she adds.

This unprecedented time presents the counseling profession with an opportunity and a responsibility to forge connections with the medical community and do more interdisciplinary work, Najera asserts.

Not only do counselors have a responsibility to ask clients if they have a primary care provider and other questions about their medical care, but they should also be proactive and advocate to help them overcome barriers when there are gaps in that care, says Najera, who has a master’s in clinical mental health counseling as well as a master’s degree and licensure as a PA.

The first piece of this work is for counselors to become familiar with and connect with medical providers and other support services in their community. It also can involve advocacy with individual clients, such as helping them find health care services or supporting them while they call a pharmacist or a provider who prescribes psychiatric medicines.

In addition to her work as a PA, Najera provides psychiatric medication management services part time at a community mental health agency and is a backup psychiatric provider for Shippensburg University and Gettysburg College. She is also employed part time in the Carroll County Health Department in Maryland, working with clients in the reproductive health program. “We [professional counselors and medical providers] have to both play in the same sandbox,” Najera says. “It’s about meeting [clients] where they’re at and best supporting them on their journey. It has to be a team taking care of the whole person. We have to play well together … [and] it works a lot better when we all have open communication with each other.”

Ellis says that part of working as a wellness-focused counselor is serving as a catalyst to connect clients with medical care and other essential services. “We [counselors] are active listeners, so we are often the first people to hear about problems they’re experiencing,” she notes. “We are ethically bound to connect with other practitioners, help make connections and referrals, and have good relationships with [interdisciplinary professionals] in the community.”

For instance, if a client were to mention during a counseling session that they are suffering from back pain, Ellis says she would first provide empathy and prompt the client to talk about how the physical pain has been interfering with their everyday life and affecting their moods, sleep and other aspects of wellness. Then, she would shift the conversation to focus on how the client can advocate to find solutions to move toward how they want to feel. This may include making phone calls together during session to schedule appointments or ask questions of medical providers, she says.

“When people are not taking care of themselves, sometimes they need that little piece of support and the message that ‘I’m worth it,’” Ellis emphasizes.

Najera believes counselors should build connections with clients’ primary care providers, and if they don’t have one, explore why that is and support them in finding one. Ensuring a client’s medical provider is aware of their counseling goals also affords counselors the chance to consult or hand off care if things go beyond their scope of practice, she adds.

“As mental health professionals, we [counselors] cannot prescribe medical things,” Najera continues. “It makes sense to tell clients to go take a walk, but if they go out and have a heart attack, you may be at risk for being accused of giving medical advice.”

“It’s a gray zone,” Najera admits. “Talking about a sleep schedule or healthy diet is fine [as a counselor], but making recommendations about specific things to eat isn’t OK. You don’t know if they might have blood pressure issues or diabetes” or other diagnoses that require a specific diet.

Counselors can still work from a wellness perspective without advising clients beyond their scope of practice — it just takes a little creativity, Najera says. For example, suggesting breathing exercises to a client who struggles with lung function may go beyond a counselor’s scope. However, studies show that singing can help with improving lung function after illness or injury, diaphragmatic breathing, and one’s mental wellness and ability to cope with stress. Using music therapy or encouraging clients to sing to a favorite song to boost their mood would be a creative way to reap those benefits without overstepping professional boundaries, she says.

Listening for client statements such as “My doctor told me to walk every day, but it’s been too hard” can also give counselors an avenue to talk about the reasons why it’s been a challenge and support the client in reaching their walking goals without making medical recommendations, Najera says. She recommends counselors ask clients about their goals and any potential barriers by saying, “It sounds like this is important to you. How do we work on that goal and support you? What would keep you from doing it?”

Najera also suggests counselors ask permission to contact a client’s medical provider(s) on intake forms. Once permission is granted, the counselor has a “permission slip” to make phone calls or send emails or faxes to connect with other providers. However, Najera reminds counselors that doctors and other specialists are often busy and “off limits” for direct contact. Instead, they can work with nurses and other support staff. Many medical offices’ automated phone systems have an option for other providers (e.g., “Press two if calling from another provider’s office”); counselors shouldnt hesitate to use that option, she says, because they are part of the client’s care team.

Najera also recommends that counselors write a standard letter or email for collaborative care: “Dear Dr. so-and-so, I am now meeting with your client, so-and-so. What recommendations do you have to benefit their overall health and wellness?” Even if that initial communication doesn’t result in a reply, “it creates an avenue for conversation and opens the door,” she says.

When looking to consult on a client’s wellness goals, counselors should make it easy for the provider to respond, Najera advises. “It may be as simple as [sending] a fax or email saying, ‘I’m seeing Jane Doe, and we’re talking about exercise. Is it OK to recommend walking X times per week?’ That way, the provider is able to answer with a simple no or yes and sign off that they are OK with the recommendation,” she says.

Counselors could also prepare letters outlining their contact information, services and areas of specialty and drop them off at local medical offices. This serves not only to spread awareness of their availability for referrals and other patient care but also to offer counseling services to medical staff themselves, many of whom are burned out right now, Najera notes.

“What would be amazing is to say [to medical staff], ‘We recognize that this is a really crappy time for you, and I’d be happy to see you for counseling sessions.’ Being flexible and willing to offer sliding scale and/or evening appointments makes the point that we’re all on the same side,” she says.

Extending counselors’ reach

Interdisciplinary work extends beyond just medical providers, Najera says. Counselors could partner with school-based and community mental health providers, hospital case managers or local law enforcement to help with issues such as crisis management and evaluation.

If a counselor runs a therapeutic group for teenagers who struggle with eating disorders, for example, they could reach out to other local providers and agencies that serve youth to see if they have any clients who might benefit, she says. Or a counselor who specializes in trauma could forge a connection with a wound care center in their area to counsel patients and help them work through the range of emotions associated with losing a limb.

“There’s a lot of ways counselors can stretch and grow and expand their services,” Najera points out. “We [counselors] don’t need to stay in our offices. Integrated care is meeting people where they’re at.”

Bruns is co-directing a federally funded grant to foster wellness on the Youngstown State University campus. She says one of the project’s biggest takeaways so far has been the importance and power of interdisciplinary partnerships. Sharing resources and working across specialties enriches and strengthens services on both sides.

“Don’t take for granted what we [counselors] know about wellness. We have a lot to share. Don’t underplay the value of wellness and self-care, both in our own lives and for our clients. The impact of small changes in self-care and wellness can shift a person’s life, and there’s so much power in that,” Bruns says. “On an individual basis, you can create a culture of wellness wherever you are. We have a part to play, to create a culture of wellness one person at a time. We all have a space where we can make that difference.”

 

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Bethany Bray is a senior writer and social media coordinator for Counseling Today. Contact her at bbray@counseling.org.

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Incorporating interprofessional education and practice in counselor development

by Judy Schmidt April 13, 2021

As the complexity of care for people with mental health needs increases, more counselors are serving on interdisciplinary teams responding to the acute and chronic needs of their clients. Many people with serious mental illness may also have co-occurring physical disorders such as cardiovascular disease or nutritional/metabolic diseases (e.g., diabetes, obesity), as reviewed by Mark De Hert and colleagues in 2011. These individuals require increased medical care involving physicians, nurses, dietitians, and radiologic and clinical laboratory specialists. Social work also coordinates care with mental health teams for community resource support and with vocational rehabilitation counselors to assist with employment needs. Thus, counselors’ understanding of the role and function of interprofessional collaboration in providing care is vital for achieving quality outcomes.

As a counselor educator, I strive to create opportunities for students to develop strong communication and leadership skills during their clinical training. When I invite alumni to talk with students about different aspects of building their career, many discuss their work on community-based mental health teams. They explain having to learn to work with people outside the counseling profession — nurses, psychiatrists, physical and occupational therapists, speech therapists, social workers, pharmacists, police officers and others. I began to understand the need for our students to have better skills for team-based care. So, I worked with our faculty to offer more opportunities to expose our students to a wider range of care providers and delved into the research on interprofessional education and practice (IPEP).

During this time, I engaged with faculty from physical and occupational therapy in our Department of Allied Health Sciences who were involved in IPEP. Through them, I started learning more about IPEP in medicine, nursing and other health affairs schools on campus. My personal exposure to interdisciplinary care began in earnest when, as part of my clinical faculty duties, I started working part time as the rehabilitation counselor on the acute inpatient rehabilitation unit at our hospital located on campus. This fully immersed me in an interprofessional setting with providers from all health disciplines.

This required me to be a member of a team of varied professionals focused on quality patient care that depended on strong communication, an understanding of team members’ roles in providing care, and the use of best practices for supporting the team. I witnessed (and contributed to) interprofessional practice at its finest being carried out every day. I was hooked and worked with other allied health faculty to find ways for our students to engage with one another. With the support of our dean, I became the coordinator for IPEP for our department.

Two years ago, when our university leadership developed a campuswide initiative for intentionally integrating IPEP and created a formal office for it, I was ready to represent our Department of Allied Health Sciences as the director of IPEP. I work closely with other directors from all health disciplines as well as public health, social work, business and education to intentionally build IPEP across curricula. Student and faculty support have been tremendous. I see the need to expand knowledge of IPEP to counselor education as a whole and to build these endeavors into our programs to ensure that future counselors can easily transition to interprofessional care and become leaders on these teams.

Thus, counselor educators should be aware of current interprofessional teamwork practices and curriculum frameworks that provide opportunities for students to understand their roles on these teams, effectively describe and implement counseling services, and uphold the culture of interdisciplinary care. Establishing opportunities for counseling students to participate in IPEP with stakeholders was a critical need noted by Kaprea Johnson and Krystal Freeman in 2014 in their work on integrating IPEP into mental health counselor education. This knowledge will help new counselors understand their role in a variety of settings and learn appropriate communication strategies for sharing knowledge in team settings. IPEP trainings for graduate students also helps dispel preconceived ideas about other professional team members’ roles and highlights the importance of quality care.

Core competencies

In 2009, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) was formed by six national health profession education associations covering nursing, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, medicine and public health. Their goal was to advance interprofessional learning strategies to enhance skills in team-based care that promote quality health outcomes. The collaborative also established core competencies in providing interdisciplinary care for student clinical training programs. By 2016, IPEC had expanded its academic partnerships to include 21 health-related institutions. Its vision is to promote interprofessional teamwork and collaborative practice that reinforces quality, accessible, person-centered care that improves population health. 

IPEC has four core competencies that guide the development of curricular content:

  • Values/ethics for interprofessional practice to build and maintain mutual respect and shared values in patient care
  • Knowledge of roles/responsibilities in interdisciplinary teams to help assess and address health care needs
  • Interprofessional communication that is supportive and responsive to team-based care and treatment and prevention of disease
  • Teams and teamwork that uphold high values and principles recognizing different team members’ roles in planning, delivering and evaluating patient care, programs and policies

The overarching goal for IPEP is for health care workers to learn from, with and about each other.

These competencies also promote the principles of the “Quadruple Aim” in health care. Three of the principles were originally developed in 2007 by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement to promote health system reform to improve patient experiences, reduce costs and increase better outcomes. The fourth principle, improving the clinical experience for providers, was added in 2015, primarily to address and manage clinician burnout.

Counselor training opportunities that embrace these competencies help students understand their team roles, effectively describe and implement their services, learn appropriate methods for sharing knowledge in team settings, and uphold the culture of interdisciplinary teamwork. Overall, curriculum structures that promote opportunities that integrate the IPEP competencies help develop graduates who are leaders in their field. These graduates will possess the skills for teamwork that can address challenges in providing quality health care, including in the counseling field.

IPEP in relation to accreditation and licensure requirements

CACREP recognizes the need for counselor education programs to provide specific information and training to students about interprofessional care and their respective roles on these teams. On its website, CACREP states that it is a member of the Health Professions Accreditors Collaborative, which works to promote learning opportunities that prepare students for interprofessional practice. Requirements for interprofessional education opportunities are outlined in the 2016 CACREP Standards in Section 2, Standard F.1.c. and Section 5, Standard D.2.b.

The 2014 ACA Code of Ethics clearly states in Section D, Relationships With Other Professionals, the importance of being a part of interdisciplinary teamwork (Standard D.1.c.) and understanding the professional and ethical obligations as a team member (Standard D.1.d.). In 2017, the Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors provided guidelines for certified rehabilitation counselors working as members of interdisciplinary teams that provide complex and comprehensive services to people with disabilities. Section E, Relationships With Other Professionals and Employers, outlines these ethical responsibilities in Standards E.1., E.2.a. and E.2.b.

Thus, counselor education programs are called to build relationships among all stakeholders (administration, faculty, students and community partners for clinical training) that are crucial for successful IPEP development and implementation, as noted by Daniel Kinnair and colleagues (2012) and Kaprea Johnson and Krystal Freeman (2014).

IPEP experiences for counselor education and development

Innovative ideas for incorporating IPEP experiences in counselor education include collaborative learning experiences with other professions, problem-based learning events and simulation activities. One of the best approaches for initially developing IPEP in counseling programs is to seek opportunities with other departments on campus that may have similar graduate-level introductory courses that include content on disability rights and current health care issues such as quality indicators of care, disparities in care, implicit bias and leadership development. These topics lend themselves to developing interdisciplinary journal clubs, case-based events for problem-solving and opportunities for students to talk about their different professions or why they chose their career path in graduate school. Most importantly, these activities will help students begin to understand and clarify their roles and how they fit in interprofessional teams. Their professional thinking may be challenged by understanding different viewpoints, decreasing the use of jargon, and building confidence and leadership for future teamwork.

IPEP events that are more intentional with specific learning outcomes require more planning. However, working with other health professionals on campus or in field placements to design opportunities will prevent reinventing the wheel and will model interprofessional collaboration for students. Examples of IPEP activities designed around specific learning objectives for students include case-based learning experiences, seminars with small-group discussions and debriefs, and clinical simulations that use videos or actors to play patients and portray different health issues and patient ages. Service-learning opportunities, particularly focused on rural health care, can bring students together from many disciplines, including business, education, legal care and faith-based organizations. These opportunities serve as excellent avenues for learning from, with and about each other to serve the community.

Field placements for clinical work offer built-in opportunities for IPEP in clinical agencies where interdisciplinary teamwork is provided. These preceptors will have practical knowledge to share about their teamwork and examples of interprofessional care that works and does not work. They can also offer opportunities for counseling students to incorporate counseling theory with IPEP practice and to reflect on potential ethical dilemmas for counselors when providing team-based care. These environments can help all students, not just counseling students, learn how to deal with complex issues and bridge theory to practice difficulties in providing clinical care as new professionals. Furthermore, these experiential learning opportunities are very important in IPEP because they offer environments in which professionals and students can interact and reflect on practices for improved care.

It is important to note that the four IPEC core competencies discussed earlier should always guide a program’s IPEP initiatives and curriculum. Students and faculty should be able to explain how the activity meets the competencies. Evaluation by participants for each event is critical to ensure that the goals of the training are being met and that it represents a valuable learning opportunity. Faculty development for counselor educators and other health disciplines and IPEP partners is critical to designing, developing, implementing and assessing successful learning opportunities.

In the planning of IPEP events, it is crucial to involve students from the beginning. They may have friends or contacts in other departments or community agencies that have resources or programs that can be used to help with planning and executing events. Encouraging students to take leadership roles in working with faculty to develop IPEP on campus is an excellent way to build their leadership skills and a commitment to interprofessional learning.

Value in counselor development

Incorporating IPEP into counselor education programs can increase opportunities for clinical participation with other related disciplines in a manner that helps counseling students develop a strong professional identity. Well-planned IPEP activities build on the knowledge being learned in the classroom and increase critical thinking skills by evaluating complex care needs from multiple perspectives. In addition, students see faculty and professionals from other disciplines working together during IPEP activities, modeling effective interprofessional teamwork that may not be experienced during training.   

IPEP training offers opportunities for students to better understand aspects of patient-centered care, holistic treatment and shared decision-making practices that guide teams in their goals for achieving outcomes. But most importantly, students enjoy IPEP events. They naturally form their own interdisciplinary groups for further discussion after participating in IPEP opportunities and develop friendships that can lead to building a better workforce in the future.

Our students have their own campuswide Student Executive Committee with representation from all the schools participating in IPEP. They plan formal and informal events that promote IPEP and serve as liaisons between the IPEP office and student groups across campus to increase awareness of interprofessional learning and collaboration as part of their academic experience. These students are leaders on campus and are also developing into our future leaders in counseling and in team-based community care. Actually, they are why we have a deep commitment to IPEP on our campus. And they are worth it.

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Judy Schmidt is the director of Interprofessional Education and Practice (IPEP) for the Department of Allied Health Sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She is a member of the leadership team for the university’s Office of IPEP, which is dedicated to working collaboratively to transform health education and prepare professionals from different disciplines to work better together for quality patient care. She is a clinical assistant professor in the department and a certified rehabilitation counselor. Contact her at judy_schmidt@med.unc.edu.

Counseling Today reviews unsolicited articles written by American Counseling Association members. To access writing guidelines and tips for having an article accepted for publication, visit ct.counseling.org/feedback.

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Encouraging T-shaped thinking in the counseling profession

By John McCarthy May 18, 2020

I thought it was a most ridiculous assignment. The instructor of my Introduction to Counseling course in 1988 asked us to write, of all things, a book report. “Make sure the book has nothing to do with counseling,” he directed.

I was incredulous. “My first class in counseling, and he’s asking us to do a fifth-grade assignment?” I wanted to learn everything I could about counseling, especially in an initial course, and a book report was not on my anticipated list of important things to do.

Years later, I realized that it was a brilliant stroke by the professor, and in 2020, I believe it could well be a portal to the future of the counseling profession. With a strong interest in creativity, I now realize the impetus of the assignment. The instructor wanted us novice students to know things outside of counseling. Go learn about Portuguese history, quilting or the evolution of vacuum cleaners.

The assignment concerned creativity and, in retrospect, was aimed at helping us counselors-in-training with our creative “shape.” Creativity involves being a “T-shaped” person, a term originating from a well-known design firm named IDEO. The T-shape idea entails a person knowing a great deal about a specific discipline and having a breadth of knowledge in other fields. It is not a matter of being an expert in only one area, represented by the vertical line in the T, but also being able to draw from other arenas, as represented by the horizonal line.

In her 2009 book What I Wish I Knew When I Was 20: A Crash Course on Making Your Place in the World, Tina Seelig related the importance of developing T-shaped thinkers in directing the Stanford Technology Ventures Program. The aim was straightforward: Students would have an extensive knowledge base in one discipline, perhaps science or engineering, along with, in this case, innovation and entrepreneurship.

It is the combination skills that can be central to creativity. Incidentally, it is these skills that represent the C (combination) in the commonly cited SCAMPER acronym of creativity. Linking ideas from counseling with web design, political science or chemistry can lead to innovative solutions in any number of roles that counselors play, including as consultants, crisis responders or group facilitators.

In her book, Seelig also observed, “Life presents everyone with many opportunities to experiment and recombine our skills and passions in new and surprising ways.” T-shaped thinkers can draw from other parts of their knowledge base in that recombining process to formulate more creative solutions to challenges.

Radical collaboration

The T metaphor isn’t just about individual counselors though. It also concerns our counseling profession and, in my opinion, how it can be strengthened in the coming years. Yes, integrated care is critical to counseling, but I believe that interprofessional partnership extends beyond this model.

“We believe in radical collaboration.” The last two words caught my eye as I read the “We’re glad you’re here!” brochure during a recent visit to the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford University. Also known as the “d.school,” this internationally recognized institute offers students from an array of disciplines — including engineering, law, business and medicine — the opportunity to deepen their creative skills and gain design competencies toward solving complicated dilemmas.

The same brochure posed thought-provoking questions, one of which fits the notion of “radical collaboration” and the future of the counseling profession: Choose two diverse occupations and list ways that they could work together to answer a challenge in the real world. If counselors were chosen as one of the occupations, imagine the potential life-changing ideas that could be sparked in partnering with oceanographers, mathematicians or cybersecurity specialists. Imagine how social justice, advocacy and consultation could be integrated. Imagine how such an adventure could result in even more creative T-shaped counselors-in-training and professional counselors.

Work involving the search terms “interprofessional” and “counselor” would appear to be limited, although the topic has been discussed in the literature for at least 30 years. Elizabeth Mellin, Brandon Hunt and Lindsey Nichols conducted questionnaire-based research among counselors in 2011 that included a discussion on interprofessional collaboration. In a 2016 study, Christianne Fowler and Kaprea Hoquee (nee Johnson) described a one-day standardized patient experience among students in counseling, nursing and dental hygiene programs. In research published last year, Kaprea Johnson surveyed students in counseling, along with those in dental hygiene, nursing and physical therapy programs, and concluded that counseling students were as receptive as the students in health care programs regarding interprofessional training.

Examples of interprofessional interaction are seen in related mental health arenas. Last year, the American Psychological Association announced that it would be partnering with medicine, pharmacy, nursing and other areas to oversee organizational accreditation for interprofessional continuing education. According to the article announcing this recent development, the move was viewed as a benefit to the field, especially in relation to the amount and caliber of continuing education possibilities. A second instance is Robert Morris University’s Access to Interprofessional Mental Health Education program, which aims in part to train psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners to offer care as part of an interprofessional team.

Identity is central to our counseling profession, and T-encouraged initiatives with other domains can make us better as a whole, broadening our collaboration with — and increasing our visibility by — other fields. Continuing education regulations could be modified to include domains outside of counseling. Imagine counseling conferences with people from other areas such as pharmacy, dentistry, media relations, medicine, computer science and the design industry. Presentations by counselors in tandem with dietitians, architects and TV producers could deepen our knowledge bases and foster further cross-disciplinary collaboration.

Programmatic standards could be adjusted to encourage (or perhaps even require) counseling students to take at least one elective outside of the department. They could learn about the future of health care in a medical curriculum, about correctional reform in other countries in a criminology program, or about sustainability in an engineering course.

T-shaped efforts at the professional level would deepen our collective cultural competency and contribute to our collective mindfulness. Kio Stark devoted a 2016 book to talking with strangers, and her message aligns with the present-moment orientation that counseling espouses. “When you interact with a stranger,” she wrote, “you’re not in your own head, you’re not on autopilot from here to there. You are present in the moment. And to be present is to feel alive.”

Developing cross-disciplinary tentacles can aid our future. T-shaped counselors and a T-shaped profession can broaden our scope, charge innovative ideas, emphasize wellness and deepen counseling’s visibility.

Counseling is a holistic, collaborative approach. Let’s extend the letter T in encouraging creative counselors and, ultimately, an innovative counseling profession.

The letter of tomorrow is T. Now let’s all go read some books.

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John McCarthy is a professor in the Department of Counseling at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Contact him at jmccarth@iup.edu.

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Maintaining counselor identity in interdisciplinary teams

By Princess Lanclos and Krystal Vaughn December 3, 2019

Professional counselors are increasing their presence in a variety of settings, including nonprofit agencies, clinics, private practice groups, schools, hospitals, and state and federal vocational rehabilitation centers. In these settings, counselors are likely to work with other health care professionals for the benefit of their clients. Some of these other professionals involved in the care of clients may include physicians, speech therapists, occupational therapists, and case managers. As we enter into new arenas, our ability to advocate for the counseling profession is imperative, yet many counselors may find themselves questioning how to do that while working in interdisciplinary teams.

One way that advocacy may be achieved in an interdisciplinary team is through active implementation of a shared decision-making model. According to research conducted by France Légaré in 2011, shared decision-making models have historically focused on the patient-physician dyad.

Both medical professionals and professional counselors are trained to make decisions to benefit their clients. However, counselors are typically trained to use an ethical decision-making model such as Holly Forester-Miller and Thomas Davis’ seven-step process:

1) Identify the problem.

2) Apply the ACA Code of Ethics.

3) Determine the nature and dimensions of the dilemma.

4) Generate potential courses of action.

5) Consider the potential consequences of all options and determine a course of action.

6) Evaluate the selected course of action.

7) Implement the course of action.

Medical professionals, on the other hand, may be trained to use a medical decision-making model. This model involves 1) the number of potential diagnoses and management options that must be considered during an encounter, 2) the amount and complexity of data to be reviewed as a result of the encounter, and 3) the risk of complications, morbidity and mortality associated with the encounter.

Alternatively, medical professionals may use a shared decision-making model. This model first determines if the decision is the right thing to do ethically. Next, the patient is provided with treatment options so that the patient can make an informed decision. Consent is then obtained. This model helps bridge health disparities by involving patients in many aspects of the treatment, including the informed decision-making process.

All of these decision-making methods share similarities, including placing emphasis on four common principles: autonomy, justice, beneficence and nonmaleficence. Additionally, both the ACA Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association’s code of medical ethics strive to protect the confidentiality of the client/patient. In The American Journal of Emergency Medicine in 2016, Chadd Kraus and Catherine Marco defined shared decision-making as a collaborative process that allows patients (or their surrogates) and clinicians to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values, goals and preferences.

Therefore, in an interdisciplinary team, a professional counselor may offer a unique perspective to benefit the client or patient. This can lead to counselors advocating for themselves and their profession. The question is, how do we bring awareness to these variations in decision-making models on the basis of any health care professional’s training program while also effectively training and implementing these approaches for both new and seasoned health care professionals?

Classroom

Professional identity and ethical decision-making begin early in a counselor-in-training’s academic career and are specifically reinforced in CACREP-accredited graduate training programs. These programs are composed of core courses (e.g., ethics, counseling techniques, assessment) that allow students to begin exploring and implementing the skills needed to handle ethical dilemmas. At this stage of professional development, graduate students are establishing ethical decision-making practices and the principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice, which are reinforced throughout their academic careers (e.g., practicum, internships).

Additionally, the opportunity to practice implementing a shared decision-making model may be offered in a classroom setting by engaging students in activities or courses in which they join with students from other disciplines to approach a case study and propose a holistic treatment plan that addresses each discipline’s scope of practice. Engrossing students in this practice may aid in postgraduate work and provide them a new perspective and appreciation for various treatment providers who might be serving their clients.

However, unless a student is placed at a practicum or internship site where multiple disciplines are offering services, the student may receive little guidance related to working within an interdisciplinary team. Therefore, we encourage counseling training programs to initiate relationships with potential internship sites that feature multiple disciplines so that students can experience the benefits and challenges of working within interdisciplinary teams. Alternatively, students could be placed at internship sites that actively consult with other treatment providers outside of the internship site.

Post-graduation

Think back to your first job after graduation or even to your current place of employment. Did/does your agency offer an opportunity for interdisciplinary consultation or encourage you to consult with a client’s treatment team in another health care setting? As a beginning professional in the field of counseling, did you feel comfortable discussing your treatment recommendations with another professional?

As members of interdisciplinary teams, counselors should understand not only the challenges but also the benefits of shared decision-making models in conjunction with an ethical decision-making model of their choice. Each of these models benefits the client and the field of counseling.

Implementing model and consultation

Many individuals are trained in graduate school to interact with the identified client but may have limited exposure to working within an interdisciplinary or interprofessional team. However, the reality is that the clients we see today may have a variety of treatment providers (speech therapists, occupational therapists, case workers, physicians, psychologists, etc.). It takes practice and experience to maintain our counselor identity while engaging in consultation with other treatment providers. Exploring instances in which consultation is needed and how it is implemented may aid in providing and advocating for quality holistic treatment for clients.

Consultation first requires knowledge of the treatment team. Who is the client working with outside of your agency or clinic? Do you have consent to speak with that individual in accord with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) considerations? Counselors must reflect on how consulting with the treatment provider would aid in the client’s treatment. At times, we may consult to share treatment goals or treatment progress. However, at other times, we are consulting to gain information regarding another professional’s goals, methods or protocols. Once a working relationship is developed, the counselor may proceed to engage in the initial phase of consultation.

Step one: The initial phase of consultation should include preparing for the call, including ensuring that all proper HIPAA release of information and agency paperwork have been completed. The counselor should be prepared with a concise yet well-thought-out reason for requesting consultation. What information would the counselor like to share or request? The counselor may also want to consider whether the person being consulted understands that the counselor is also working with the individual and how the counselor’s role relates to the treatment of the individual. 

Step two: The counselor should contact the consulting agency, provide the release of information, and schedule a consultation. Scheduling may be essential because many professionals are busy and might not be readily available to speak. It sometimes requires numerous phone calls to contact the individual provider. Even if the provider is available, he or she may not have the client’s chart or may still need to review the information, potentially causing frustration and delays. Therefore, if a call is scheduled, all parties should be prepared to participate fully.

Step three: The requesting provider should be well-prepared with information that might be shared or requested during the consultation call. A brief overview of how the client came to receive services from the counselor and what services the counselor is providing is a nice place to start. This should be followed by discussing the client’s condition, interventions, shared treatment goals, schedule/frequency of treatment, prognosis, and expected duration of treatment. At times, professionals may have similar treatment goals for the client but might be using different interventions or approaches. It is important to recognize that overlap may exist in the knowledge and skills of each provider. In such cases, it may be necessary to discuss why the providers and treatment modalities are mutually beneficial to the client. During the consultation, it may also be important to consider alternative or complementary therapies.

The counselor may be seeing the client more frequently than is the other provider, so a general impression of the client’s current condition and presentation may be helpful to the overall treatment team. The consultation call should allow the counselor to ask questions of the other providers and vice versa. Consultations can be held individually or with all members of the treatment team, depending on the levels of intervention and the specific consultation questions being asked.

Treatment teams may need to determine who will be responsible for which treatment goals or objectives. (Note: Professional counselors must be careful to stay clearly within their scope of practice.) At this point, it may also be important to schedule a follow-up consult, if necessary, and determine which of the treatment providers will start the call. Follow-up consults work best when they are planned, scheduled and predictable. This allows providers to align treatment goals and outcomes.

Step four: The counselor should document consultations in the client’s file. The consultation notes should include the name of the client, date and time of the call, and length of the call. The purpose of the call should also be clearly noted and supported by HIPAA release of information documentation. We recommend also dedicating a space on the consultation documentation form for a narrative that states the overview and outcome of the consult.

Case example

Sally is a 12-year-old female who is seeing a licensed professional counselor to help her reduce her anxiety symptoms. Initially, a licensed clinical psychologist diagnosed Sally with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and a speech language disorder and then referred her for speech, counseling, and medication evaluation. Sally lives at home with her parents and doesn’t have any siblings. The counselor would like to speak with Sally’s psychologist, school counselor, speech therapist, and treating child psychiatrist. The counselor requested that Sally’s parents sign HIPAA forms during the initial intake session.

Step one: After treating Sally for two to three sessions, the counselor forms consultation questions for each provider treating Sally. The counselor first would like to know from the psychologist whether Sally has any educational limitations that would prevent her from participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Second, the counselor would like to know how the school is addressing Sally’s symptoms of GAD, whether an accommodation plan is being or has been used for Sally, and whether the school counselor is working with Sally weekly. Third, the counselor would like to know whether the speech therapist is noticing signs of GAD during sessions with Sally and, if so, how the speech therapist is addressing those symptoms. Finally, the counselor would like to know what recommendations the psychiatrist has, while also providing the psychiatrist with information on Sally’s progress and the techniques being used in the counseling sessions.

Step two: The counselor will contact each of the four providers’ offices to request a consultation call. The counselor will also scan or fax the HIPAA release to each provider in a secure manner.

Step three: The counselor will review the file, treatment goals, progress, and schedule/frequency of treatment for Sally. The counselor should have questions prepared or outlined for each of the consultation calls. It will be important for members of Sally’s treatment team to consider how the various treatments may support one another, be similar, or be different. The team should also consider how often consultation will need to occur and who will be responsible for scheduling. For example, the psychologist may not have any additional contact with the family and require no further communication with the treatment team. However, the school counselor and speech therapist may be seeing Sally weekly, similar to the counselor. Therefore, frequent contact between these three providers may be necessary. Finally, the psychiatrist may request information only immediately prior to Sally’s next appointment.

Step four: The counselor will document each consult. The note should include the date and time of each consult, a summary of the consult, and the next scheduled consultation.

Conclusion

Using the aforementioned instructions while consulting with other health care professionals may aid in applying a decision-making model that will continue to benefit the clinician, the client, and the counseling profession as we continue to adapt and improve our provision of treatment for the populations we serve.

As professional counselors, we may find ourselves working alongside other professionals who hold more advanced degrees. Regardless, it is important that we maintain our counselor identity, uphold our professional code of ethics, and advocate for our clients’ well-being. When involved in interdisciplinary teams, it is imperative that we are able to work within our scope of practice as counselors and clearly state the rationale for the interventions we are providing in therapy. Additionally, implementing a shared decision-making model fosters an opportunity for us to advocate for our profession and our clients while in interdisciplinary settings.

 

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Princess Lanclos is a doctoral student in counselor education and supervision at the University of Holy Cross in New Orleans. She is a national certified counselor, a certified rehabilitation counselor, and a provisionally licensed professional counselor. Her areas of focus include substance abuse, counseling ex-offenders, and multicultural counseling. Contact her at princess_lanclos@uhcno.edu.

Krystal Vaughn is a licensed professional counselor supervisor specializing in working with children ages 2-12. As an associate professor at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center–New Orleans, she enjoys teaching and providing clinical services. Her research interests include supervision, play therapy, and mental health consultation. She has extensive experience providing mental health consultation in child care centers, private schools, and local charter school systems. Contact her at kvaugh@lsuhsc.edu.

 

Knowledge Share articles are developed from sessions presented at American Counseling Association conference.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Bringing CBT into the doctor’s office

By Bethany Bray September 12, 2018

When you get your annual physical, does your primary care physician ask if you’ve been feeling atypically sad or anxious lately?

Primary care doctors are often the first professional a person will tell about symptoms related to depression or other mental health issues. With this in mind, two Pennsylvania counselors have created a presentation on coping skills and takeaways from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) that medical doctors can use with their patients.

When Brandon Ballantyne and Kevin Ulsh spoke to the primary care physicians and other medical personnel at Tower Health in Reading, Pennsylvania, recently, they found an interested and engaged audience. The medical practitioners were particularly interested in learning more about how to help patients who present with anxiety and related problems during medical appointments.

Ulsh and Ballantyne are mental health therapists in the inpatient and partial hospitalization programs, respectively, at Reading Hospital, which is part of the Tower Health system. Ballantyne is also a licensed professional counselor and American Counseling Association member.

How can aspects of CBT be translated for use in the medical professions? CT Online asked Ulsh and Ballantyne some questions to find out more.

 

How did this come together? Did you reach out to the doctors, or did they invite you to come?

We have always been interested in the concept of extending coping skills practice and implementation into primary care settings. We believe that the primary care setting is where most individuals first report problems associated with anxiety, stress, depression and so on. In many situations, the primary care physician is the first provider to address such issues.

Recently, we have observed a growing trend to integrate primary care and behavioral health services. We decided to take these observations and build a coping skills lecture that can assist providers in the primary care setting with addressing stress and anxiety, along with other mood-related problems with the patients they serve. We developed an outline for a presentation and broadcast the idea to the primary care Tower Health continuing education team, who then gave us an invitation to present it as a part of their lecture series.

 

How did it go? Were the doctors open to your message? What were some of the things they asked or commented about?

The lecture went well. The doctors in attendance were attentive and interested. They asked several questions about how to address behaviors particularly associated with adolescent anxiety such as school avoidance and oppositional defiance. We addressed these questions by referring back to the cognitive model, which we highlighted as a foundation of our lecture.

We think it was important to have a discussion with the doctors about the clinical indicators of avoidance versus defiance. Utilizing a cognitive philosophy, we emphasized that avoidance typically shows itself as a behavior which prevents an individual from doing something that they would like to be able to do or would want to be able to do if not affected by anxiety. The anxiety that drives avoidance is typically a product of some anticipated fear. … The individual has cognitively come to the conclusion that the fear itself is an already established fact or guarantee.

Defiance, on the other hand, is a behavior that is driven by the desire to maintain control by resisting demands and expectations to comply with things that are simply undesirable. In other words, in the cognitive process that drives defiance, an individual may think, “If I don’t like it or don’t want to do it, then I don’t have to, and it doesn’t matter what anyone says.”

Therefore, primary care physicians may be able to get a better handle on what it going on with the patient, clinically, simply by asking about their thinking.

 

From your perspective, how could CBT be helpful in a medical setting? Please talk about why you chose to focus on CBT when you spoke to the doctors.

We chose to focus on cognitive behavior therapy when providing this lecture because CBT is an evidence-based approach that has been shown to be an effective form of treatment for multiple psychological problems across various populations. We believe that in the primary care settings, patients will benefit most from socialization to the cognitive model, so that they can gain a clear understanding of the difference between a thought and an emotion.

Once an individual understands the relationship between a thought, an emotion and a behavior, they acquire control over regulating their mood and reactions in a positive way. CBT-based skills are goal-oriented, problem-focused and able to be introduced and taught to individuals dealing with a wide range of psychological problems.

In the fast-paced primary care setting, brief psychological education and skills practice can be a piece of the treatment puzzle that not only addresses the emotional problems of the patient, but also offers skills that they can continue to utilize and benefit from outside of the office (such as deep breathing, sleep hygiene, behavioral activation, disputing cognitive distortions, thought journals, activity scheduling, etc.).

 

From your perspective, what are the benefits to this kind of collaboration? In other words, benefits not only for the professionals involved, but for the patients/clients too.

There are multiple benefits to this kind of collaboration. We believe that in most cases, the first call that patients make when they are not feeling well is to their family doctor. On some occasions, they are being seen by their family doctor for a physical health issue. However, in the midst of assessment, they may reveal an emotional problem or talk about a significant stressor that is causing psychological distress.

This is because for the most part, individuals attend treatment with a primary care doctor whom they trust. Maybe they have been seeing this doctor for most of their life. They have learned to confide in this doctor quite often. Therefore, they may be more open to acknowledging emotional problems within that office setting.

The type of collaboration that we facilitated reinforces the importance of integrating psychological education and coping skills practice into a primary care setting. For professionals, it improves the continuum of care and reduces the stigma of mental health problems. Ongoing behavioral health collaboration, and having a behavioral health component to primary care treatment, implies that psychological distress is a natural area of assessment which patients might otherwise be hesitant to acknowledge or discuss. In this way, patients can become more open to behavioral health support and more accepting of their need to seek outpatient therapy to further resolve symptoms.

 

What advice or tips would you give to counselors who might want to collaborate with medical professionals, like you did, in their local area?

We would suggest that mental health professionals in all parts of the country consider developing a presentation on one particular area of therapy and/or psychological education that you feel passionate about [and] which you also utilize with the clients you serve. The goal is to develop a component of that theoretical orientation that is applicable to a primary care setting. It has to be something that primary care physicians can utilize within the short amount of time that they have with their patients.

We found that in our lecture, doctors were most interested in the practical applications of CBT as it pertains to the acute management of anxiety. We assume that other helpful topics may be closely related to dialectical behavior therapy [and] concepts such as mindfulness, distress tolerance and opposite action.

 

Is this something you think that counselors could or should do more of? What did you learn through this process?

As a result of providing this lecture, we learned that primary care doctors are very much interested in behavioral health support and assistance. It seems as though there has been an increase of patients presenting to family physicians with emotional problems. The doctors that we spoke with were very thankful for the background on CBT and the skills practice that we provided. In fact, they practiced some of the skills with us.

It reminded us that regardless of the [health] profession, we all will be most effective [with] our patients if we are also taking good care of ourselves. Integrating behavioral health support, psychological education and coping skills practice into a primary care setting reinforces the importance of seamless multidimensional treatment, ultimately helping patients to receive effective care that addresses their physical and emotional needs, and offers the safety to accept the behavioral health treatment that they may otherwise be hesitant to pursue.

 

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Ballantyne and Ulsh can be contacted via email:

Brandon.Ballantyne@towerhealth.org

Kevin.Ulsh@towerhealth.org

 

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Related reading, from Counseling Today:

Integrated interventions

The counselor’s role in assessing and treating medical symptoms and diagnoses

When brain meets body

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.