Tag Archives: play therapy

The therapy behind play therapy

By Bethany Bray August 24, 2018

Ashley Wroton, a licensed professional counselor (LPC), says parents of her young clients have told her that pediatricians sometimes make comments suggesting that they try “real” therapy with their child rather than play therapy.

“Play therapy is real therapy,” says Wroton, a registered play therapist who works with clients ages 3-12 at a group outpatient practice in Hampton, Virginia. “Play is the medium through which the therapy occurs. … The play helps them open up to make better connections.”

The idea that play therapy isn’t a wholly serious or legitimate approach to therapy is a misconception with which play therapists often contend — including among other helping professionals, says Jeff Cochran, a professor of counselor education and head of the Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling at the University of Tennessee. Perhaps understandably, those not trained in the theory might be skeptical of the effectiveness of allowing a child to explore a room full of art supplies, stuffed animals and toys for the length of the therapy session. However, Cochran explains, under the watchful eyes of a play therapist, the toys are a medium through which the child communicates, learns, self-discovers, shares experiences and forms a trusting therapeutic relationship. The play, he asserts, serves simply as a bridge to therapy.

“Because we refer to it as play, [people assume] it’s supposed to be all light and easy for the child. But, no, it’s work,” says Cochran, a member of the American Counseling Association.

Defining play therapy

The fourth edition of The Counseling Dictionary, published by ACA, defines play therapy as the “use of play as a means of establishing rapport, uncovering what is troubling a person (often a child), and bringing about a resolution.”

Under the broad umbrella of play therapy are a number of focused methods and approaches, ranging from child-centered, filial and dyadic to animal-assisted play therapy. Although most often associated with children, play therapy can also be used in varying forms with teenagers and adults, as well as with children and their parents or their caretakers together. It can also be used in conjunction with more traditional therapy methods such as cognitive behavioral, Adlerian, Gestalt and narrative therapies.

However, simply having some toys in a therapy office or encouraging clients to draw or play with blocks as they talk with a counselor is not play therapy, stresses Dee Ray, an LPC and director of the Center for Play Therapy at the University of North Texas. The 2014 ACA Code of Ethics emphasizes that practitioners should undergo “appropriate education, training and supervised experience” to become fully competent in a specialty area such as play therapy before using it in practice. Practitioners can also obtain special play therapy credentials (such as the registered play therapist credential) through training, supervision and other requirements. These credentials provide practitioners additional credibility and may be preferred by certain employers or clients, Ray explains.

The process

Play therapy generally begins with a period of observation and assessment by the counselor, followed by work to process and focus on challenges the practitioner has identified based on cues the client exhibits during play.

Wroton starts therapy by talking with her child client’s parents or caregivers to hear what they believe the presenting issue is. After first watching the child play on his or her own, Wroton conducts a session in which the child and adult caregivers (or other family members living in the home with the child) play together so she can observe how they interact. Afterward, she talks with the parents or caregivers about what she noticed.

Play therapists learn much through observation, including how the child handles separation from the caregiver when the child is brought into the therapy room, Wroton says. Some children are clingy or start crying when the parent leaves, whereas others don’t seem to mind at all. This provides play therapists cues about the child’s level of attachment.

Other cues can be found in how clients play with objects in the playroom. For example, clients with anxiety, obsessive-compulsive behaviors or control issues are often very structured in their play, Wroton says. They might engage in organizing behaviors rather than playful play. She remembers one young boy who gravitated toward arranging the stuffed animals by category: jungle animals, farm animals, aquatic animals and so on.

At the same time, Wroton says, practitioners need to watch from session to session to see if clients’ play behaviors change at all. At first, organizing behaviors might be a way for clients to soothe themselves or to create order because they’re nervous. But if those same behaviors continue across sessions, they could be an indication of anxiety, autism, past trauma or other issues.

Most important, each client in play therapy will need a tailored approach and a different degree of involvement from the counselor, Wroton says. She notes that some of her clients are very independent while playing, hardly making eye contact with her as she makes observations and asks questions, whereas others invite her to play with them.

Play can run the gamut from imaginative to soothing or sensory, such as child clients painting or placing their hands in water or sand elements. As clients explore and play, Wroton narrates with questions such as “I wonder why this toy is doing that?” or “I notice that you don’t invite me to play. Do you invite other friends to play?”

In imaginative and role-play scenarios, Wroton might ask her child clients, “What could have gone differently?” or “What do you wish had gone differently?” Their answers, along with the scene they have acted out previously, can provide clues about the issues troubling these children. For example, repeatedly arranging toy figures with a “bad guy” in the scene might indicate that a child is struggling with trauma or violence from his or her past.

Wroton says she determines the course of sessions “once I learn how they [the children] do the work and how engaged they are. … I use the dynamic I see in session with them. I use my narration to challenge their thought process, make observations and ask questions. [I] guide and tease at those threads I see coming out.”

The power of play

A quote from play therapy researcher and author Garry Landreth is often used to explain the method’s effectiveness: “In the play therapy experience, toys are like the child’s words, and play is the child’s language.”

In addition to speaking a child’s language, play therapy provides a supportive, therapeutic environment and, therefore, an incubator for learning and healing, Cochran says. “When a therapist is reaching out to the child in kindness, [the child] will gradually open up. It makes all the rest of the pieces work from that therapeutic relationship core,” he says. “They cherish the undivided attention that for some adults might be too intense.”

Cochran and his wife, Nancy, both specialize in child-centered play therapy and together present trainings and workshops on the topic. They co-led an education session titled “Growing play therapy up for older children, adolescents and adults” at the ACA 2018 Conference & Expo in Atlanta this past spring.

“Once the child knows that the therapy hour is a place where they are safe, a spark is lit,” says Nancy, an ACA member and a trainer and consultant in child-centered play therapy with the National Institute for Relationship Enhancement. “With children, that’s the purity of it. The child has the ability to … take the lead and work through to mastery.”

In fact, the crux of what makes play therapy so effective — and different from most other counseling methods — is that it is directed by the client, the Cochrans assert. Play therapists don’t suggest that clients play with a certain toy or work on a presenting problem. Instead, play therapists offer warmth, empathy and a gentle structure for clients to make their own meaning through the exploration and play they chose to engage in.

In play therapy, Jeff explains, the counselor sets up the process that leads to self-discovery on the part of the client. “You let the process teach them,” he says.

“It’s really the child that directs,” Nancy says. “They’ve got a unique voice in here [the play therapy room] which doesn’t always include words. When children are given the chance to go on a journey of self-discovery, they come in and they find a unique voice within that room. Once they find their individual voice, they become more accepting of self. Not only that, but they embrace self.”

Play therapy gives clients a safe space to explore what it feels like to be in control, she adds, with learning opportunities presenting themselves at every turn. As young clients try out the various toys in the playroom, they are learning what they do and don’t like, explains Nancy, an adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling at the University of Tennessee. They can also push against preconceived ideas — whether of their own making or instilled in them by others — of what they are and aren’t good at.

In the process, Jeff adds, these clients are learning not only that they can play the xylophone, for example, but that they can take on a challenge and master it.

“They can try and fail and put themselves at risk in sessions [in ways] that they wouldn’t otherwise,” Nancy says. “The process and the therapist’s unconditional positive regard allow the child to make choices and be their own guide. They can be surprised by what is discovered.”

Giving clients control

One of the Cochrans’ graduate students worked with a child referred to play therapy because he was exhibiting obstinate behavior at preschool and not connecting with classmates. The 4-year-old had experienced abuse in his past, and his fear of taking risks discouraged him from trying new things or learning at school. Nancy says that the boy was nonverbal until the 10th session of play therapy.

In his first appointment, the boy was withdrawn and anxious, alternately slouching against the wall, crawling underneath a rug and hiding behind a shelf of toy bins for much of the session. Throughout the session, the Cochrans’ graduate counseling student offered gentle narration, such as “You’re not too sure about this” and “This is difficult for you.” She stayed with him, talking him through the process, which showed that she was committed to allowing him to choose how to proceed in his playtime, Nancy says.

Afterward, the graduate student confided to Nancy that she thought she had failed and had just made the young boy miserable. When they went back and watched video footage of the session together, however, Nancy pointed out something that the counseling student had missed. The boy had repeatedly tossed toys out from behind the shelf where he was hiding, but in the very last minute of the session, he found a pair of toy binoculars and had looked through them directly at the counseling student.

“It showed that he was curious, reaching out and was open to an eventual relationship,” Nancy says. “[I told the student], ‘Think of all the things he expressed and you helped him express. It was so beautiful that you stayed warmly right there with him.’”

Over the course of therapy, the young client opened up more and more. At the second and following sessions, he went behind the shelf and dumped toys out, both to explore and to see how the student counselor would react. He later gravitated to self-expressive work in a sand tray and used the counselor as an ally as he fought with a punching bag and engaged in imaginative role-play and rescue schemes. Eventually, the boy and the counselor played together, with the boy proudly setting up challenges and showing off his skills tossing balls into a toy bin.

The client was in foster care, and over the course of therapy, his play evolved from symbolic to direct expression as he drew pictures of what he wanted his family to look like, Nancy adds.

At one point early on in therapy, the counselor moved in to sit next to the client as he was working at the sand tray. He responded during the next session by putting objects in all the chairs to let her know that he wasn’t quite ready for that, Nancy recalls with a chuckle. “He was in control to let her in, little by little. But from the start, he wanted to know her and wanted her to know him. That connection was made from the very first session by giving him control of when and how — even though that first session wasn’t very playful.”

Watching video footage of the difference between when the client first came to play therapy and later sessions is remarkable, according to Nancy. “When you look across the sessions we did with him, his whole physical presence in the room changes, from looking downcast, to playing, laughing and making eye contact.”

In play therapy, clients learn to shed the defensive behaviors they have established to hide a vulnerable core, Nancy says. “They grow up — or down — to the age they’re supposed to be. You can have a child in play therapy who is 7 years going on 40, or 7 years going on 2. They develop the skills [in play therapy] to be a good, solid 7 years old,” she says. “They try on roles, explore what it feels like to be in control, integrate what is useful and let go of what they don’t need.”

Jeff acknowledges that play therapy’s power of self-discovery “sounds deceptively simple. … It’s hard to believe it can be so impactful.” However, through play, clients are able to examine themselves and push limits to discover patterns of repeated mistakes and blind spots.

For example, a play therapist might see young clients use a doll to act out, fluctuating between caring and nurturing behaviors and hurtful behaviors. Jeff says the counselor can narrate with empathy, accepting all play behaviors and attending to the child’s process as the child makes choices of how she or he wants to be in life.

“Being with a child while she tries on hurtful ways of being can be like allowing a child to have all chocolate for lunch to find out that it’s not actually good,” Jeff says. “They’re playing out what they’re thinking about: ‘How does it feel? What does it mean to me?’ They can fluctuate between what they’ve seen in their life versus what they want.”

Testing limits and making connections

Ray, an ACA fellow and a professor in the counseling program at the University of North Texas, is a registered play therapist and a certified supervisor in both child-centered play therapy and child-parent relationship therapy. She estimates that roughly 70 percent of a play therapist’s work is nonverbal and 30 percent is verbal. When play therapy practitioners do speak, it is typically to offer reflection and encouragement on the play they are observing or to offer guidance such as setting limits, she says.

“If [the child client] is depending on an adult to make decisions, I would respond, ‘In here, it’s up to you.’ If they’re asking, ‘How do I spell this?’ or ‘How do I draw this?’ the answer would be, ‘In here, you can draw or spell it any way you want to,’” Ray says.

When a young client becomes angry or tests limits, the counselor can recognize how the client is feeling and redirect the behavior. For example, when the child gets agitated, the play therapist can suggest that rather than drawing on the wall, they draw together on paper, rip the paper or punch a punching bag, Ray says.

“The child learns that every decision they make has consequences,” she says. “Acknowledge that they do have that feeling, and the feeling is OK. But never say, ‘You can’t.’ Say, ‘This [behavior] is not for doing.’”

This type of limit setting emphasizes that the child’s feelings are valid, Ray explains. It also sends the message that the child’s behavior — not the child himself or herself — is the problem and that there are always other ways of expressing strong feelings through an acceptable behavior. If a counselor presents the limit as “You can’t,” it implies that something about the child is not OK, Ray says. This type of response also might engage the child in a power struggle with the counselor by personalizing the expression of the feeling, she explains.

Children will naturally bump up against limits as a form of exploration, so play therapists will often see young clients who want to climb on things, break toys or exhibit other destructive behaviors, Jeff Cochran says. As with so many aspects of play therapy, the manner in which the counselor diffuses these urges can be an opportunity for self-discovery.

“We start with a simple opening message: ‘In this room, you can say anything you want and do almost anything you want, and if there’s something that’s not OK to do, I will tell you,’” Cochran says.

When the child does bump into a limit, the play therapist responds with empathy to the child’s experience in that moment and limits as little of the child’s behavior as possible — just enough to keep the child and therapist safe and the therapy room functional. “That in itself becomes therapeutic,” Cochran says. “They learn that there are ways to express themselves other than pushing boundaries. The therapist doesn’t have to make that happen; it’s a naturally occurring thing. They learn themselves who they are and what they want. Is what you are doing going to get you what you want?”

The growth and learning that begin in play therapy naturally carry over and are applied elsewhere in clients’ lives, Wroton says. In other words, the “work” of play therapy continues, even if the play therapist doesn’t observe a direct cause and effect in sessions, she says.

Wroton remembers one client, a 9-year-old boy, who had been adopted after going through the foster care system. Before being removed from his birth home, he had been exposed to graphic sexual content, anger, violence and alcohol abuse. In play therapy, he responded well and gravitated to making scenes in a sand tray.

Wroton told the boy, “I want to know what it’s like to be in your world.” Repeatedly, he would respond to this prompt by creating a scene that involved a king figure and several blue Smurfs. He would bury and uncover the Smurfs, and then rebury them. When he was finally finished making his scene, the Smurfs would always remain buried beneath the sand. They weren’t uncovered until it was time to clean up, Wroton says. The boy didn’t identify who or what these figures might represent, simply referring to them as “Smurfs,” she adds.

Then, one day, something changed for the client: He buried and reburied the Smurfs like usual, but he also buried the king and left him beneath the sand. Afterward, Wroton received a call from the client’s adoptive mother. Her son, who previously had never talked much about his past, was suddenly opening up and connecting more with her.

Wroton thinks the Smurfs and king figure in the boy’s sand tray scenes represented experiences and feelings that the young client had tucked away — including family members who were abusive yet for whom he also held some positive memories. Through the sand tray, he was processing these feelings and coming to terms with what the memories meant to him.

“Typically, a change in play means a change in processing,” Wroton says. “What motivated him that day, I’m not sure. For a month and a half, he had played out that scene over and over with the same characters. We might do the work here, but the application of it, and the completion of the work, is done [outside of session]. And that’s the end goal.”

What lies beneath

Ray thinks there is no better method than play therapy for reaching children who have behavioral or mental health challenges. “So many of our interventions are about telling, doing and suggesting. But in play therapy, we trust the client to know where they need to go,” says Ray, a past president of the Association for Child and Adolescent Counseling, a division of ACA. “It’s an intervention that trusts the child — they know where to go to solve their own problems and move toward self-enhancing solutions. If you offer a relationship that facilitates growth, the child is able to make the change through the developmentally appropriate language of play.”

“It’s something that is very, very different than most mental health interventions,” Ray continues. “It’s not acting upon the child; it’s acting with the child.”

The self-directive aspect of play therapy reached one of Ray’s clients in ways that other more direct methods might have failed to do. The 8-year-old girl was referred to Ray by her school because of aggressive behavior, which included being suspended after trying to hit her teacher. However, in play therapy, the girl never mentioned any anger regarding school, her teacher or her classmates. Instead, she played out scenes from her family and home life, where, it turns out, she was being abused.

In play therapy sessions with Ray, the client gravitated toward drawing her family and setting up scenes with figures in a dollhouse. As the characters in the dollhouse would interact, the girl would exhibit what Ray calls a “play disruption.” In the middle of a dollhouse scene, the girl would become more active and move through the room, often throwing or trying to break things. After directing her energy and aggression in this way, she was able to finish her scene in the dollhouse.

The girl wasn’t willing to talk with anyone about her family issues at school. The style of her play in play therapy, however, was an outlet for her to communicate and process what was happening. The young client talked about specific abuses that were happening at home during the family scenes she played out in therapy, Ray says.

Once the root of the child’s struggles became clear, Ray took the necessary steps to report the suspected abuse, documenting what the client had verbalized in session. Through play, the client formed a therapeutic bond with Ray and was able to work through what was troubling her. As a result, the child’s aggressive behavior at school dissipated.

“If I had brought the child in and said, ‘Let’s talk about how you’re aggressive at school,’ she would have shut down and not talked,” Ray says. “Having a counselor who trusts a child is so different than what many children experience [from adults]. That message of, ‘I’m going to accept you no matter what and trust that you know where you need to go,’ that, to me, is the healing factor of play therapy. It’s predicated on this amazing factor that if you put a child in an environment where they have control, they will move toward change.”

Not just for kids

Missy Galica, an ACA member and LPC intern in Lubbock, Texas, uses sand tray therapy in her work with adult clients, including college students from Texas Tech University. The medium can be particularly helpful for clients of any age who are struggling to find the words to articulate how they are feeling, she says.

What brings many of Galica’s college-age clients to counseling are academic struggles. By creating scenes in a sand tray, the students are often able to work through nonacademic issues that are troubling them and spilling over into their behavior and schoolwork.

Sand tray work “is good for those who just aren’t good at [verbal] communication or for those whose brains work faster than their mouths,” Galica says. “The sand tray makes them slow down. You really have to think about what you’re doing. You have to think about the representation and object placement. It’s also good for those who get nervous or people who just don’t like getting grilled with questions [from a counselor.] It gives them time to explore what they want to say, and they don’t have to have answers right away.”

As is the case with child-centered play therapy, sand tray work is nondirective. The client chooses what gets made in the sand tray and the meaning attached to it. Counselors should be careful to prompt clients to describe and talk about the scenes they have made in the sand tray without interjecting their own observations, Galica emphasizes.

“If you don’t ‘get it’ at first, if you don’t see a meaning, it’s OK. It’s the client’s space to do what they need to do,” she says. “Anything you can think of that happens in life can be represented in a sand tray, [but] don’t make any assumptions. Ask the client what things represent. You may see something and assume, ‘Oh, this is XYZ,’ but it may be the opposite.”

As part of the meaning-making process, Galica takes photos of each scene after clients finish their sand trays. Later, they look at the photos together, talk about the progress the client has made and discuss how the person’s sand tray scenes have evolved. This is also a good way to track and prompt discussions of representations that come up repeatedly with clients, Galica says.

Clients often have to take some time to think it through before they can explain the scenes they have created in their sand trays. Many times, Galica says, issues and challenges that have been troubling clients don’t become clear to them until they see the issues played out in a sand tray. For example, a client who is feeling overwhelmed with school or home life might put figures all in a jumble on top of one another. Or a client may use one object to represent themselves and place another object or objects at a distance or facing away from them. In this case, the client may be struggling with loss, attachment issues or fear of letting loved ones down. Ultimately, however, it is up to the client — not the counselor — to discover and talk through the issue that has taken shape in the sand tray. At the same time, the counselor provides the prompting and support to help and encourage the client, Galica says.

“It can be tempting to ask, ‘What are you doing?’ or ‘What does that mean?’ But don’t stop them. Let it play out. Wait to the end and then say, ‘Talk to me about this. Describe it for me,’” Galica suggests. “Often, it will be something you [the counselor] never would have thought of. I learn something new every day.”

Galica recalls a particular client whose parents wanted him to become an engineer and were paying his way through college. He hated his engineering courses, however, and harbored a desire to become a jazz musician. This had manifested into academic and other struggles while he was away from home. When the client made sand tray scenes, he often placed a female figure at a distance from the figure he used to represent himself. After multiple sand trays and discussions, it became clear that the client was terrified to tell his mother he didn’t want to be an engineer.

Galica began to focus on that fear with the client, asking him to express his feelings in a draft letter to his parents. She also had him speak to an empty chair as if his mother were there, which is a technique often used in Gestalt therapy. It took the student the entire semester before he felt prepared to tell his parents about his own dreams for his future.

As clients play out situations in sand trays, Galica asks them to show her what they would want life to look like if they had a magic wand to fix everything they were struggling with. What would a resolution look like? What would it look like in five, 10 or 20 years? From there, Galica and her clients talk through the issues and consider options for arriving at realistic resolutions.

Galica says sand trays can easily be used in conjunction with any modality to which a counselor is loyal. She regularly uses them along with cognitive behavior therapy for her college-age clients. Another benefit, she notes, is that the materials are readily available and easily transportable. Practitioners can pick up a plastic tray, sand and small figurines at any big box or craft supply store.

Sand tray work is a method that many counselors might not consider for adult clients “because we’re culturally conditioned [to think] that we don’t play after a certain age,” Galica says. However, sand tray work is very accessible (for both counselor and client), creative and versatile, she asserts.

“Broadly, it’s a way for clients to communicate without having to use words, because they may not have the words,” Galica says. For the client, it means, “I don’t have to stare you in the eyes and tell you all my secrets; the sand tray will tell you. … The beautiful thing about this is that as a counselor, there is no [need to assign] meaning. The only meaning comes from the client.”

 

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To contact the counselors interviewed for this article, email:

 

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Additional resources

Books published by ACA (Available at counseling.org/publications/bookstore)

From Counseling Today (ct.counseling.org)

ACA divisions

  • The Association for Child and Adolescent Counseling: acachild.org

Search for podcasts, online courses and other ACA resources at aca.digitellinc.com/aca/

 

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Bethany Bray is a staff writer and social media coordinator for Counseling Today. Contact her
at bbray@counseling.org.

Letters to the editorct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Superheroes and play therapy: The perfect imaginary combination

By Jetaun Bailey and Tonya Davis July 9, 2018

Superheroes have a profound influence on American culture. Recently, Marvel Comics’ Black Panther came to life on the movie screen. It appears the movie had a twofold impact.

First, it brought heroic life to a seemingly little-known character. Second, unlike most other big-screen superhero movies, Black Panther placed value on social consciousness, awareness, community, family and pride. It broke boundaries that went beyond simply box-office sales, introducing a male of presumably African descent as the superhero. During the movie’s opening weekend, many news outlets showed young African American children wearing their dashikis as a symbol of pride in the African ancestry depicted in the movie.

As a culture, we hold our superheroes in high esteem, even if they are fictional characters. Thanks to Black Panther, many African American boys can identify with a superhero for the first time. This experience has likely heightened the imaginations of many African American boys as they imitate characters from Black Panther in their play.

Escaping to the imaginary worlds of our superheroes seemingly has therapeutic powers. Author and blogger Remez Sasson describes imagination as the mental ability to formulate an image that is not tangible through our five senses. For young children, an even deeper escape possibly occurs when watching these types of movies. The imagination is a powerful tool for children, as reported by Patti Teel in Pathways to Family Wellness magazine. When children imagine, they can visualize their heart’s desire, thus welcoming it into their reality.

 

Reaching beyond traditional play therapy

The therapeutic power of imagination is also evident in various therapy practices, specifically play therapy. According to “Helping a Child Through Play Therapy” by Jane Framingham, adults mistakenly think that child’s play is solely for fun and games or to occupy time. Unbeknownst to these adults, through creative and imaginative play, children are developing cognitively and emotionally while improving their self-worth, positive self-image, and communication and coping skills. For those reasons, play can be therapeutic in helping children overcome challenges that might inhibit developmental growth.

To tap into children’s imaginations and gain deeper understanding of their problems, play therapists are reaching beyond traditional play therapy tools such as sand trays, crayons, paints, animals, toys and dolls. Technology appears to have revolutionized the art of play therapy, thus making it easily accessible to counselors. This can be especially important for school counselors, who work in settings in which the counseling process is often limited because of the other administrative duties assigned to them.

Technology-based programs such as Marvel’s Superhero Avatar Creator and DC Super Friends Super Hero Creator represent the infusion of electronic media into play therapy. Based on “The iPad Playroom: A Therapeutic Technique” by Marilyn Snow and colleagues, the infusion of technology increases the imagination and creativity of the child by allowing the child to create media, pictures and other artwork while the therapist is present, either in conjunction with or separate from the therapist. For example, many applications are available to aid children in fueling their imaginations to create family dynamics or events through drawing and colors that possibly hold symbolism to their presenting problems. This invites the opportunity for metaphors to help solve real-world problems.

 

An ideal therapeutic method

This method of integrating superheroes through a technology approach in play therapy potentially could be an ideal therapeutic method of working with children, especially African American males, in the school setting. It appears to offer a nonintrusive approach for getting students involved in counseling because it integrates technology and play without asking probing questions.

As former school counselors, we have been disturbed by the alarming rates of African American boys being suspended because of perceived aggressive behaviors. Through our lenses, we have seen many of these students struggling with low-self-esteem or low self-worth. Ironically, sometimes these issues are not apparent through traditional presentations such as withdrawing or isolating.

The adjustment between school and family cultures has proved problematic for African American males regarding understanding their importance and worth. This likely causes tension in the school setting, resulting in aggression. These adjustment issues, or inability to navigate from one situation to another, is better known as code-switching.

Eric Deggans, in “Learning How to Code-Switch: Humbling, But Necessary,” describes code-switching as beyond the exchange of two languages in a conversation. But in today’s diverse society, the term’s deeper meaning is shifting between different cultures to move through life’s conversations. Deggans, an African American man, implies that code-switching is an essential tool for African Americans to adjust culturally. Therefore, African American males are expected to recognize one set of rules in one setting and understand another set of rules in another setting while maintaining their identity.

 

Uses with a student

We have sought to address these adjustment issues with our African American male clients through the use of play therapy methods. Using the power of imagination in play therapy allows them to foster development and problem-solve issues that have been hindering their overall academic and emotional growth. In one case, Marvel’s Superhero Avatar Creator  was used with an African American male student who was having adjustment issues at school that produced aggressive behaviors both at school and at home. Although the nature of the school setting did not permit long-term therapy, this short-term approach showed significant positive results.

This student created a superhero avatar over the course of four sessions. During the creating phase, the student used his imagination to create a creature that had similar features and skin color to his own, thus solidifying the importance of identity and connection to the creature. Allowing the student autonomy in creating his creature aided in establishing the therapeutic relationship.

The student was able to arrange the way therapy was directed as the therapeutic relationship was established. Through the various stages of play therapy, from gaining insight to reorientation or reeducation, the therapeutic process became a playground in which the student could live out his imagination through his superhero in a way that was vivid and emotionally alive. This experience paved the way for deeper understanding of how the student perceived his school family in relation to his peers, faculty and staff, and his actual family. Through incorporation of a client-centered approach to play therapy, this student showed significant growth in his overall development and was thus able to transfer those skills (i.e., code-switching) between school and family relationships.

Once significant progress was made with the student, his parents were incorporated in one play therapy session. The student’s father decided to create a superhero avatar to bring life to his perceived role as the family protector. In retrospect, through this play therapy family activity, the father could see how his family viewed his role and their individual roles within the family.

The play therapy sessions, infused with the technology of creating superheroes, helped the student use his imagination to bring to life his own unique story and identity. In superhero stories, superheroes conquer their adversaries while overcoming their adversities. The ending of this student’s story depicted similar results.

This form of play therapy is a nonintrusive method that renders promising results by not asking direct questions, but rather allowing students to self-express through play. As such, we do not believe that the traditional mode of counseling would have achieved the same impact on this child’s growth and development. This lends support to the importance of expressive therapy for children, particularly African American boys. Expressive therapies can help children find their voices, especially through play-based techniques using superhero avatars.

 

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Jetaun Bailey, a former school counselor, is a certified school counselor, a licensed professional counselor supervisor and an assistant professor at Alabama A&M University. Contact Jetaun at Jetaun.bailey@aamu.edu or baileyjetaun@hotmail.com.

 

Tonya Davis, a former school counselor, is a nationally certified school psychologist, a licensed professional counselor supervisor and an assistant professor at Alabama A&M University.

 

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Related reading: See the upcoming September issue of Counseling Today magazine for an in-depth cover article on play therapy.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Behind the Book: Partners in Play: An Adlerian Approach to Play Therapy

By Bethany Bray October 10, 2016

It’s often said that play therapy reaches young clients through their own natural “language” of play. When combined with tenets of the Adlerian method, play therapy becomes a tool for the therapist to build an egalitarian relationship with the client while focusing on the individual and photo-1473662711507-13345f9d447chis or her dynamics with others, according to Terry Kottman and Kristin Meany-Walen, co-authors of Partners in Play: An Adlerian Approach to Play Therapy.

“The Adlerian belief in the ability to make new choices and to reinterpret situations provides a vehicle for play therapists to work with children to get out of their boxes, change their lifestyle patterns, increase their social interest, make shifts in the goals of their behavior and a host of other forums for determining their paths,” write Meany-Walen and Kottman in the book’s second chapter. “One of your primary responsibilities as an Adlerian play therapist is to discover how each child expresses his or her special and wonderful self and to convey a sense of celebration in his or her uniqueness to the child, parents and other people who interact with him or her. Sometimes the child expresses uniqueness in a way that others do not appreciate.”

Meany-Walen, an assistant professor of counseling at the University of Northern Iowa, and Kottman, who runs a play therapy counseling, training and workshop center in Cedar Falls, Iowa, are both licensed mental health counselors and registered play therapists.

The third edition of Partners in Play was published earlier this year by the American Counseling Association.

 

Q+A: CT Online contacted Kottman and Meany-Walen recently to learn more about this unique approach. Their responses are co-written, except where noted.

 

Your book focuses on Adlerian play therapy, which combines play therapy techniques with the Adlerian method. Why do you think they are a good fit? Why does that combination work to help young clients?

Adlerian psychology has a clear and easy-to-follow way to conceptualize clients and figure out what is “underneath” the presenting problem. Before the development of Adlerian play therapy, there was no precedent for working with individual child clients, nor was there a precedent for using play as a treatment modality using Adlerian psychology. We believe that combining Adlerian psychology with play therapy was a logical way to capitalize on the Adlerian methodology for conceptualizing and developing a treatment plan [while] at the same time using play, the “natural” language of children, to communicate with them.

 

What are some key takeaways that you want counselors to know about this topic?

We want counselors to learn about the myriads of ways of using play, art techniques, sand tray, active games, movement and dance, bibliotherapy and therapeutic storytelling as a vehicle for helping children, adolescents, parents and family members to grow in positive directions. We believe that the four-phase model of Adlerian or Individual Psychology — building a relationship with the client, exploring the client’s lifestyle, helping the client gain insight into his or her lifestyle, and learning and practicing new skills — is an amazing vehicle for working with clients. We value the systematic way Adlerian counselors conceptualize clients — looking at assets and strengths, interpersonal dynamics, intrapersonal dynamics (like personality priorities, Crucial C’s*, goals of misbehavior, mastery of the life tasks), problem-solving skills, self-defeating thought patterns and so forth — as a way to determine the best way to decide on the direction and structure of the therapeutic process.

 

* The Crucial C’s are one method that Adlerians use to conceptualize clients. They were developed by Amy Lew and Betty Lou Bettner, who suggest that all people need to have courage (the willingness to try new things without a guarantee of success), connect (the desire and ability to build relationships with other people), be capable (the belief that they are able to master ideas and skills) and count (the belief that they are valuable and special without having to earn love or worthiness).

How does Adlerian play therapy fit with your personality and style as a counselor? What made you want to specialize in this area?

I (Terry) am a very encouraging and exuberant person. Adlerian play therapy reflects my personality by being positive and playful. I was drawn to Adlerian psychology because it is so focused on the strengths of the client, which is exactly what I wanted to do when I became a counselor. I love playing, have always loved playing and had spent my whole life working with children in some capacity. When I was in high school, I worked part time in a pediatrician’s office. When I was in college, I taught swimming lessons to young children and volunteered in an after-school program for children who came from low-income families. I got my first master’s degree in elementary teaching and my second master’s degree in special education. I loved working with children in schools. It was a natural transition for me to work as a school counselor and to become a play therapist.

Adlerian play therapy was also a natural fit for me (Kristin). I had often considered the experiences of my youth, and my perceptions of those experiences, as instrumental in shaping who I was as an adult. I explored many different counseling theories, and Adlerian psychology was most consistent with how I understand people and how I want to work with them. The systematic way of understanding people’s ways of belonging and operating in the world, from an Adlerian perspective, helps me to feel organized and productive, both of which are important parts of my lifestyle.

By happenstance, I took a class from (co-author) Terry Kottman where I began learning about the value and art of play therapy. I started to use some of the play therapy concepts with my own child, who was 8 years old at the time. I noticed drastic improvements in his mood, his behaviors and our relationship. I wanted to help other children and families in the same way.

 

One of the things that prompted you to write the first edition of this title (in 1995) was a rising interest in play therapy. Two decades later, is the field still growing?

Yes, it is. The field of play therapy continues to grow, with the Association for Play Therapy growing from 3,346 members in 1998 to 6,166 members in 2015, increasing at the rate of about 1.5 percent each year. There is a wider understanding of the importance of credentialing of play therapists (registered play therapists, or RPTs) among mental health professionals and with the public.

 

What is one thing you wish you knew about play therapy as a new counselor? What advice would you give to recent counseling graduates who are starting out and are interested in play therapy?

I (Terry) wish I had known that play therapy was not just for children — that teens, adults and members of families can also benefit from using play therapy skills and techniques (including art techniques, sand tray, active games, movement and dance, bibliotherapy and therapeutic storytelling) as a way to express themselves, explore their issues, gain insight, and learn and practice new ways of communicating, solving problems and interacting with others.

The advice I would give recent counseling grads who are starting a career in play therapy is to obtain really good training in play therapy. I believe it is essential to explore the different approaches to play therapy and find one that fits with your personality and what you believe about how personalities form and how people change. After that, find training that includes being observed with children and getting feedback about your skills and abilities.

 

What prompted you to create a third edition of this title? What new information will readers find?

The counseling field continues to evolve as we make discoveries and learn from our experiences. We wanted to provide updated information about play therapy, counseling and how the two merge. Since the last edition, we have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based treatments and research. In the current edition, we include information about some of our ideas of researching Adlerian play therapy as well as published accounts of Adlerian play therapy. We also included various resources for readers such a list of activities to use with children and informal assessments to use with children, parents or teachers.

 

In addition to your book, what resources would you recommend for counselors who want to learn more about play therapy?

For beginning play therapists who want to know about play therapy skills, another book I (Terry) wrote that is published by ACA would be a good resource: Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond (second edition). Another excellent resource is the website of the Association for Play Therapy (www.a4pt.org).

 

 

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Branding-Box-Partners-in-PlayPartners in Play: An Adlerian Approach to Play Therapy is available both in print and as an e-book from the American Counseling Association bookstore at counseling.org/publications/bookstore or by calling 800-422-2648 x 222

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Bethany Bray is a staff writer for Counseling Today. Contact her at bbray@counseling.org

 

Follow Counseling Today on Twitter @ACA_CTonline and on Facebook at facebook.com/CounselingToday.

 

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Do preteens still play in counseling?

By Mark Loewen December 10, 2015

As a play therapist, I’m used to explaining the ins and outs of play therapy. Because play is a universal concept, most people understand that it is also a child’s “language” and can be used to address many issues in therapy. However, when it comes to preteens, play therapy takes a slight shift.

Whereas children don’t always have the ability to articulate their thoughts and feelings, preteens are becoming more able to hold conversations about important issues. They can still become very uncomfortable, however, if they have to sit across from an adult for a “serious” talk. Plus, by the time most preteens come to counseling, they’ve heard a lot of talking already.

Play is still very important to preteens, although it starts to look a little different. As children mature, activities move away from fantasy play to more structured games. Still, children of this age often feel trapped between childhood and the teen years. In play therapy, preteens often vacillate between play that is more common to younger children and activities that appeal more to teenagers.

At our counseling practice, we often use games and interactive activities to take the pressure off. Preteens enjoy both regular board and card games and also specialized therapeutic games. Games can be used to deal with anxiety, power and control issues, self-esteem, relationships and difficult behaviors. Specialized therapeutic games address topic areas such as depression, anger, anxiety, aggression, life changes, coping skills and much more. Skilled play therapists can use almost any game to address difficult issues with children and teenagers.

Preteens are also developing creative skills. They are moving into using abstract thought as life opens up to endless possibilities. Expressive arts are a great tool to address new thoughts and feelings. Using specific art materials, clients build, sculpt or draw to represent their struggles and find alternative solutions.

Preteens also enjoy using the sand tray and an array of miniatures to represent their “worlds.” Using miniatures provides a feel that is similar to setting up toys. At the same time, the child is using these

Image via Wikimedia Commons

Image via Wikimedia Commons

miniatures with a few guidelines that make the activity feel challenging. Sand tray therapy is a great way to allow kids in early adolescence to work through their issues without feeling pressured or judged.

Additionally, interactive activities can be used to teach mindfulness meditation skills. By learning to direct their breathing and use creative imagery, kids become more aware of their feelings and what’s behind them. By recognizing intense emotions, they are better able to control them and listen to what these feelings are trying to say to them.

In conclusion, preteens are balancing child’s play and teen activities. Given enough freedom, children of this age group may allow themselves to delve into pretend play, dressing up or other activities that are more typical for younger children. On the other hand, they also like the challenge of activities that are considered to be more grown-up. Maintaining this balance requires their counselors to maintain a great level of flexibility and a nonjudgmental attitude. As a result, preteens will know that counseling is a place where they can use any of their internal resources at any time to address any issue at hand.

 

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Mark Loewen is a licensed professional counselor, registered play therapist and parent coach in Richmond, Virginia. He is the owner of LaunchPad Counseling (launchpadcounseling.com), a practice that helps children, teens and parents cultivate their inner resources to overcome stressful circumstances. Contact him at mark@launchpadcounseling.com.

 

Involving parents in child-centered play therapy

By Phyllis B. Post August 25, 2014

When young children, ages 2 to 9, are experiencing emotional and behavioral problems, the usefulness of talk therapy is limited because they often cannot communicate effectively using words. Play therapy continues to gain momentum as a viable approach to work therapeutically with young children because it is based on the premise that children communicate best through Dad&daughter_smalltheir usual way of relating — play. Using play in therapy is the most natural and effective way to help children.

Children are most often referred for play therapy when they demonstrate problems with friends, at home or at school. There are many different approaches to play therapy, but all are structured, theoretically based and developmentally appropriate, allowing young children to communicate and learn in the way that is most natural to them. Play therapy is different from “just” playing. It helps children express their feelings, assume responsibility for their behaviors and develop problem-solving skills. Play therapists are trained mental health practitioners who specialize in helping young children. An increasing number of master’s degree programs in counseling are including course work and training in play therapy. In addition, mental health practitioners can attend training provided by the Association for Play Therapy and the newest division of the American Counseling Association, the Association for Child and Adolescent Counseling.

As mentioned, a variety of approaches to play therapy exist, but I have found child-centered play therapy, as developed by Garry Landreth, to be particularly effective. Based on the work of Carl Rogers, a basic premise in child-centered play therapy is that children possess an innate force within themselves to grow and heal. Therefore, child-centered play therapists do not direct children on how to resolve their problems or use interpretation with children to promote their growth. Instead, child-centered play therapists relate to children in the playroom in ways that demonstrate a firm belief that children learn the most and heal most effectively when they themselves decide what to do in therapy sessions. Through a supportive and caring relationship with child clients, therapists help these children understand themselves, accept their feelings, assume responsibility for their behaviors in the playroom and learn to control their own behaviors.

Why work with parents?

Although there is consensus among play therapists that effective consultation with parents can maximize beneficial outcomes for children, parental involvement in the process often does not extend beyond the intake session and brief periodic check-ins when parents bring their children to therapy. But effective parent consultation can help parents better understand why play therapy is beneficial for their children, how play therapy interventions are purposeful and that the effectiveness of the interventions can be assessed. In addition, these consultations can provide parents support and hope, both of which help prevent early termination by the parents.

Although play therapists may be aware of the importance of parent consultation in helping children, many therapists are not confident about how to approach consultation with parents. In a national survey in 2008, Tim VanderGast found that play therapists identified consulting with parents as one of their greatest needs in clinical supervision. Because child-centered play therapists focus on the relationship with the child rather than on the presenting problem, they face unique challenges when helping parents understand how this popular theoretical approach helps children with specific goals that are established to assess progress.

The goal of this article is to provide some practical guidelines for therapists as they consult with parents when conducting child-centered play therapy. In addition to describing child-centered play therapy to the parents, these guidelines include:

  • Learning about the child and developing a trusting relationship with parents
  • Addressing objectives and goals
  • Relating established goals to the child-centered approach in the playroom
  • Providing ongoing parent consultations

Learn about the child and develop a trusting relationship with the parents

Parenting is often difficult and stressful. When issues create the need to involve a young child in therapy, the counselor’s ability to convey to parents the core conditions (as described by Rogers) of empathy, acceptance and genuineness cannot be overemphasized. It is through these conditions that a strong therapist-parent alliance starts to form. Additionally, consultation meetings provide an opportunity to model the person-centered approach with parents, showing them the power of the basic principles that will be used with their child in child-centered play therapy. To begin building this trusting relationship, I recommend that therapists meet parents for the initial session without any children present.

The first step is listening to the parents’ description of the child. This process results in a better understanding of the parents’ perception of the problem, as well as their worldview and the child’s cultural context. For example, when a mother who had not completed high school described her reasons for bringing her child to play therapy, the therapist sensed the mother felt uncomfortable in the elementary school environment and felt intimidated by her child’s teacher. In this situation, the therapist could demonstrate sensitivity to the mother’s perspective by responding to her feelings of uncertainty and discomfort in that environment. However, I would caution that even as therapists attend to the parents’ concerns, the focus should remain on the child’s issues rather than on the parents’ issues.

Address objectives and goals

Communicating the objectives and establishing specific goals for therapy are important for several reasons. First, the process demonstrates to parents that play therapy interventions are purposeful, which might not be as obvious in child-centered play therapy as it is in talk therapy with older children or adults. In addition, the objectives and goals are useful in evaluating the effectiveness of the play therapy. They become the benchmarks to assess progress during ongoing consultations with parents. Finally, we cannot ignore the fact that outcome goals are required in the managed care environments in which many counselors work.

As described by Landreth in the third edition of his book Play Therapy: The Art of the Relationship, child-centered play therapy adheres to the objectives of helping children become:

  • More self-reliant
  • More accepting of themselves
  • Better problem solvers
  • Better able to assume responsibility for their own behaviors

The idea of setting specific goals in addition to those four broad objectives can feel uncomfortable to child-centered play therapists. They may fear that they unconsciously possess some expectations and biases that could inadvertently cause them to direct the child in play therapy or to view the child’s behaviors in the playroom through the lens of the established goals. Awareness of this possibility is important and should be monitored through clinical supervision. However, a combination of broad objectives and specific behavioral goals is optimal for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy.

Focusing on the overarching objectives that can be observed in the playroom and in the child’s life outside of the playroom helps us to recognize broad-based changes. Focusing on more specific goals related to the issues presented by parents ensures that attention is also directed to changes in those behaviors that might not be observed in the playroom. Therefore, using both broad objectives and specific behavioral goals is useful in monitoring the effectiveness of play therapy interventions.

In the initial meeting with the parents, the play therapist strives to establish goals that reflect the family’s cultural context, given that each family has its own expectations and experiences with the meaning of help seeking, mental health and play. During this process, play therapists must be sensitive to the parents’ cultural backgrounds because the parents’ values will influence the types of goals established for their child. For example, in some cultures, compliance with authority, both at school and at home, is highly valued. Thus, the goals that evolve for the child through the therapist-parent interaction could focus on compliance and responsiveness to limits. In other cultures in which children experience more permissive relationships with their parents, the goals for play therapy might include enhancing the child’s self-confidence and ability to make decisions. This collaborative process between parents and therapists will result in a consensus on the goals for play therapy.

Setting goals with parents is hard work, and it takes practice. Goals must be concrete, measurable and observable to ensure that progress can be tracked. In addition, goals that are strength-based and that focus on solutions provide hope for parents.

As parents talk about the reasons they sought play therapy for their child, the work of the play therapist is to help them “translate” their concerns into specific behaviors that can be assessed and to set benchmarks to determine how they will know when their child has changed. For example, a mother brought her 5-year-old son to play therapy because he was “out of control” at home and at school. The therapist asked, “What does ‘out of control’ look like?” With that helpful nudge, the mother was able to elaborate, saying, “When it is time for him to get dressed in the morning, he screams for about 15 minutes and hits himself. He says ‘no’ to every request I make of him. And the teacher sends home a note almost every day about him yelling and hitting other children at school.” Based on this specific description of the boy’s behaviors, it became possible to establish realistic goals.

One question therapists can ask parents is, “How will you know when your child has changed and no longer has this problem?” This information provides the basis for benchmarks for change. In the example above, goals were created that specified how many days each week the child would comply with his mother’s requests, not have a tantrum at home, not hit himself and not receive a report from the teacher about problem behaviors in the classroom. Such clearly stated goals are helpful not only in assessing change but also in managed care environments that require the monitoring of behavioral outcomes for insurance reimbursements.

It cannot be overstated, however, that establishing such goals with parents prior to the start of child-centered therapy does not change the way that play therapists relate to the child in the playroom. There are no predetermined interventions during the counseling sessions that seek to change the child’s behavior. Instead, therapists consistently offer a safe relationship and an environment in which the child is free to be self-directive. In fact, in a chapter for the 1997 book Play Therapy Theory and Practice: A Comparative Presentation, Landreth and Daniel Sweeney recommended that child-centered play therapists continually reflect upon their way of being in clinical supervision to address the issue of inadvertently directing the child’s behavior.

Relate established goals to the child-centered approach the playroom

Perhaps the most challenging part of the initial consultation with parents is explaining how the behaviors of the counselor in the playroom help children achieve both the broad objectives and the established goals of play therapy. Play therapists can help parents by describing how each of the established goals could be addressed in the playroom. Using the earlier example, if a young child is “out of control” at home and school, the play therapist might explain to the parents that through the safe relationship with the therapist, the child will learn to assume responsibility for his decisions in the playroom and will have opportunities to demonstrate self-control if setting limits is necessary in the play therapy session. In this way, parents can recognize that what occurs in the nondirective playroom can be helpful in addressing issues occurring at home and at school.

Provide ongoing consultations

Every four or five sessions, therapists should meet with the parents without the child being present. The purpose of the ongoing consultations is to maintain and foster a strong therapist-parent alliance, allow the parents and play therapist to collaboratively assess the progress toward goals, and further educate parents about child development, parenting skills and community resources.

It is important for child-centered play therapists to maintain case notes to document significant events, attitudes and play themes in the play sessions. In addition, reviewing case notes can be useful when assessing progress toward goals. For example, if a child is experiencing anxiety outside of the playroom, case notes can help identify changes in behavior that indicate anxiety in the playroom as well, such as when making decisions about what to do in the playroom, facing the therapist or interacting with the therapist. For a child presenting with goals related to aggressive behavior outside of the playroom, documentation of play sessions could note changes in the child’s response to limits setting. Case notes can be reviewed to identify play session themes (for example, themes of power, mastery or nurturance) to share with the parents. When meeting with parents, play therapists should remain sensitive to maintaining the child’s confidentiality by not disclosing specific play behaviors or the child’s verbalizations during play sessions.

Maintaining and fostering a strong therapist-parent alliance: A primary goal for these meetings is to foster a warm relationship with the parents. The counselor can do this by acknowledging the parents’ experiences, struggles and feelings and responding with empathy and care. Through listening to the parents, the play therapist is better able to support and educate when it is appropriate.

Assessing progress: If parents share more general concerns about themselves at the beginning of the session, the counselor can focus the session on the child by asking an open-ended question such as “How have things been going with ___?” Using active listening skills at this time ensures shared understanding of what the parents are saying. Play therapists should listen for information related to the stated goals for therapy. If the parents do not address each of the goals identified in the first intake session, the therapist can systematically address the goals not mentioned. It is not uncommon for a review of the original goals to surprise parents. Some parents will have no memory of certain goals because the issues will have resolved themselves.  

During these ongoing consultation sessions, the therapist can share themes observed in the play therapy sessions, especially if they relate to the established goals of therapy, such as the child’s ability to control behaviors when limits are set or an increasing ability to assume responsibility for decisions. After reviewing the goals, the therapist and parents collaboratively determine whether the original goals were met, whether they need to be modified or if it is time to terminate the relationship.

Providing education on parenting skills and community resources: If the decision is made to continue play therapy, the therapist and parents set a time for their next meeting. Once it is established that the parents will be returning, the play therapist can also share appropriate parenting skills based on the needs of the parents and child. Most parents are eager to learn new approaches to discipline and highly value the skills of limits setting and choice giving. In addition, teaching the skills of responding to the child’s feelings and returning responsibility to the child has been found to reduce parental stress and create a more positive environment in the home. That outcome can influence the entire family system.

Ongoing meetings with parents also provide opportunities to address other needs the child may have that are not currently being met. The therapist can then provide or recommend appropriate resources. For example, if a child appears to have a learning disability, the play therapist should make an appropriate referral for the child to be assessed for needed services.

Conclusion

Child-centered play therapists focus on the relationship with the child rather than the presenting problem. Thus, therapists face unique challenges in helping parents understand how this theoretical approach supports children in progressing toward specific goals. To demonstrate the effectiveness of their work with children and to respond to the demands of managed care in agency settings, play therapists must skillfully share the objectives of child-centered play therapy, establish behavioral outcome goals and then assess progress toward achieving those goals. The guidelines proposed in this article are specifically designed so that child-centered play therapists can collaborate with parents to more effectively help young children.

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Knowledge Share articles are developed from sessions presented at American Counseling Association conferences.

Phyllis B. Post is a professor in the Department of Counseling at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the founder of the Multicultural Play Therapy Center at the university. She is a licensed professional counselor supervisor and registered play therapist. Contact her at ppost@uncc.edu.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org