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Creativity

The Counseling Connoisseur: Feminist psychology and the Amazonian mystique

By Cheryl Fisher July 13, 2017

She wanted a hero…so that’s what she became! –Anonymous

 

Clad in her patriotic unitard and silver arm bands, her dark mane cascading as she twirls her golden lasso of truth, Wonder Woman has become an icon of beauty, physical strength and moral character. Her conception in 1941 has taken her from her Amazonian haven of Paradise Island into the land of patriarchy as she is committed to help humans end violence and suffering in the United States. From her 1940s pinup persona to her 1970s Lynda Carter television series and this summer’s blockbuster movie, Wonder Woman continues to wrestle with the underpinnings of injustice in a society plagued with inequity. In creating Wonder Woman, psychologist William Moulton Marston hoped to “set up a standard among children and young people of strong free courageous women and to combat the idea women are inferior to men, and to inspire girls to self-confidence and achievements in athletics, occupations and professions monopolized by men.”

Harvard professor Jill Lepore suggests in her book The Secret History of Wonder Woman that Wonder Woman acted as a bridge for feminism, highlighting the first cover of Ms. magazine in 1972 with the headline ‘‘Wonder Woman for president.’’ Yet, not everyone was convinced of this superheroine’s positive influence on young and impressionable minds.  In his 1954 book The Seduction of the Innocent, psychiatrist Fredric Wertham described Wonder Woman as “…always a horror type. She is physically very powerful, tortures men and has her own female following, is the cruel, ‘phallic’ woman. While she is a frightening figure for boys, she is an undesirable ideal for girls, being the exact opposite of what girls are supposed to be.”

While Wertham lost his argument declaring comics a contributing factor to delinquency, it wasn’t until 2010 that evidence of the manipulation of data supporting his theory was fully revealed.  Nevertheless, Wonder Woman remains a constant iconic figure in the history of feminism.

Feminist psychology: History

In an attempt to counter Freud’s male-centered theory of identity formation, Karen Horney and other female psychologists developed theories that did not exclude the female experience. It was believed that rather than experiencing penis envy, what women desired was the status and opportunity afforded to men. Rejecting Freud’s theory in 1926, Horney introduced the concept of womb envy, or the desire around women’s ability to create and connect to their children.

The first wave of feminism occurred between 1900 and 1920 and included the suffrage movement, which ultimately won women the right to vote. Simultaneously, the field of psychology was emerging with theories of learning and intelligence. Women who were instrumental to the early conceptualization of psychology included Mary Whiton Calkins, the first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA) and Margaret Floy Washburn, who was the first woman to earn a doctorate in psychology and was the second woman, after Calkins, to serve as APA president.  Women were generally excluded from academia and (ironically) Elizabeth “Sadie” Holloway, the wife of William Moulton Marston (the creator of Wonder Woman) earned a PhD in psychology but was forbidden to attend college with men.

Marston, a psychologist and inventor of the polygraph, produced a paper in 1928 that declared that human emotions came from four factors: dominance, compliance, submission and inducement. According to Marston, inducement was the most powerful of forces, encouraging one to submit – and producing pleasantness in the induced. This was a trait that Marston identified in women, on which he based his 1937 proclamation that women would establish a matriarchy in 100 years because they have the biological advantage with “twice the love-generating organs” as men.  It was from this theoretical framework that Marston introduced his Wonder Woman in 1941.

Biology or social learning and gender prescription

Early psychology and first wave feminism emphasized the biological differences between the binary assignments of male and female-ness. Philosopher, psychologist and Harvard University professor William James denounced women as leaders because of their “tender-minded nature.”  However, second wave feminists of the 1960 to 1980s repealed the androcentric approaches to gender identity and research began to identify greater similarities between men and women.

Many theorists agree that most noted gender differences result from social learning and rewards or punishments for desired socially prescribed behavior. In essence, the theory posits that boys and girls are rewarded for different behaviors and therefore, learn what behaviors are appropriate for their gender. Social structural theory builds on social learning theory by addressing the secondary skills learned as a result of the learned primary behaviors. For example, if a girl is rewarded for domestic skills, a secondary learned behavior may be communal skills. This may result in the stereotyping of domestic work and promote the continued disenfranchising of women.

Wonder Woman attempted to dispel gender differences and employed an internal locus of control. She attributed her successes to commitment and training and valued mental and moral strength, in addition to physical conditioning.

Cultural identity

In addition to gender identity, cultural and ethnic identity contribute to one’s overall sense of self.  Cultural identity involves actively learning about one’s culture (beliefs, values and customs) and developing a clear understanding of the meaning of culture in one’s life. This includes the development of positive feelings toward one’s cultural group membership. Cultural identity in younger children is viewed in terms of physical characteristics. As they mature, culture takes on more social and membership implications.  Research appears to suggest an increase in cultural identity formation during middle adolescence. Furthermore, researchers Timothy Smith and Lynda Silva found evidence to suggest that cultural identity is a predictor of wellbeing among minority adolescents. Wonder Woman identifies as a member of the Amazons living in Paradise Island. While she is fluent in most languages, she is unfamiliar with the rules that accompany an androcentric world. She is abruptly thrown into a society that does not value women as equal [to men] and forces women to bind themselves [in clothes] “restricting their ability to be free to battle.” She wears her arm bands as a reminder that she will never be bound by anyone again. She must learn to acculturate in a way that honors her past and helps her function in the present. She must find membership and belonging in this new land, [which are] tasks that resonate with individuals migrating from other countries.

Conclusion

Wonder Woman has been described as complicated and dichotomous. According to researcher and social work educator Paige Averett, Wonder Woman “is feminine, sexual, submissive and dependent. She is also strong, capable, independent, fierce and ultimately a warrior. Unlike so many other female role models, she does not promote a one-dimensional view of the lived experience of being a woman. Wonder Woman is not just a sexy, attractive woman or just a strong kick-ass heroine or just a nurturing daughter and girlfriend or just a hardworking, justice-loving and world-changing working woman. She is all these things. Wonder Woman does not have to choose.”

Maybe this is the mystique of the Amazon princess that has remained strong for more than 75 years. While she is clearly not free from bias as a light-skinned, blue-eyed, dark haired, slender, more-than-able-bodied demigod, the idea of Wonder Woman poses the vision to engender life without prescription, to capitalize on individual strengths and to promote endless possibilities … for all persons.

 

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Cheryl Fisher

Cheryl Fisher is a licensed clinical professional counselor in private practice in Annapolis, Maryland. She is affiliate faculty for Loyola and Fordham Universities. Her research interests include examining sexuality and spirituality in young women with advanced breast cancer; Nature-informed therapy: and Geek Therapy.  She will be presenting Geek Therapy 101 at the Association for Creativity in Counseling conference in September.   She may be contacted at cyfisherphd@gmail.com.

 

 

 

 

 

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Related reading: See Counseling Today’s July cover story on the intersection of pop culture and counseling: wp.me/p2BxKN-4Lb

 

Letters to the editor: CT@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

‘Cultured’ counseling

By Laurie Meyers June 22, 2017

Pop culture has long exerted an influence on our lives, but some might argue that this overlap has unofficially reached its peak. After all, in November, a former reality TV star was elected president of the United States. And, of course, it is now possible for us to play computer games, listen to music, watch movies and stream live TV on a single device that is rarely out of arm’s reach for many of us. Some decry this confluence, stating that (among other things) people have become addicted to the internet and their smartphones and that video games glorify and encourage violence.

But rather than view pop culture as the ruination of society, some counselors say that elements of popular entertainment can actually be used strategically to enhance client-counselor communication and the therapeutic relationship. These counselors — many of whom are enthusiastic consumers of “geek” culture themselves — are turning comic books, TV shows, movies and video games into vital therapeutic tools.

For Steve Kuniak, a licensed professional counselor and private practitioner in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, the idea of using elements of pop culture in practice formed early, inspired by the words of a professor in his introduction to counseling class. “He said that counseling is one of the few — if only — professions where the professional uses themselves as the tool, and so we as professionals should bring everything we are into our counseling in order for it to be most effective,” Kuniak recalls. “That resonated with me, and what I am at my core is a gamer/geek.”

Not very long ago, the term geek had negative connotations and was used to belittle those who were viewed as being “different” in some way — often because they were out of step with popular culture. But now many of the interests formerly associated with geeks are routinely celebrated in mainstream culture, making it hard to define what today’s “geek culture” embodies. Kuniak says that, broadly, geek culture includes a love of video games, comic books, other types of games (tabletop games, board games, collectible card games) and the science fiction and fantasy genres.

For Kuniak, however, what truly qualifies someone as a geek (in the most positive sense) is the enthusiastic degree of interest that he or she shows in something. “It’s not just enough that I watch Star Wars,” he explains, “but rather that I need to know all of the characters’ back stories, I need to understand the philosophy of the Jedi … While I’m at it, maybe I should know how to build a lightsaber.”

Kuniak believes that being a self-described geek enhances his practice. “It helps me to create meaning with my clients,” he says. “If I’m talking to someone about the difficulties of their addiction, they might understand what I’m saying generally, but if I start talking about the ‘One Ring’ from Lord of the Rings and how Gollum ‘hates and loves the Ring, as he hates and loves himself,’ my client might get that imagery more and relate to it better. I can talk about feeling like no one can possibly understand me, and [how] I try to help people, but in my fear of doing something wrong, I end up hurting them, and the client might relate. However, I can relate this to the story of Darth Vader in Star Wars, and now the imagery is more solid.”

Kuniak likes to use clips from The Lord of the Rings and Star Wars as conversation starters in his group sessions, particularly with clients who are struggling against substance abuse issues. “The idea of the journey to destroy the evil Ring, and to have the Ring itself attempt to pull people back into darkness, resonates with this population,” he says.

Another film Kuniak likes to use is The Avengers, which he finds particularly useful in family therapy. “As we see in the film, the Avengers all have unique superpowers and don’t get along because they all want to be the individual hero of the story. Once they put their differences aside, they are more able to stop the bad guys and save Earth. Similarly, I’ll have each family member design their own superhero, [and] we talk about real strengths and weaknesses they’re experiencing. Then we go through The Avengers story, with clips if needed … and we work out how all of their powers work together. We explore how those powers and their weaknesses relate to their real strengths and struggles in the home, and how they can work together like the Avengers to build a stronger family.”

Playing in the virtual sandbox

Kuniak also frequently uses video games such as Minecraft in session as a kind of “virtual sandbox” for play therapy. “I find that video games have such a universal appeal right now that my client population tends to have at least some familiarity with them, and many are full blown gamers” (individuals who regularly plays interactive games). “This isn’t any specific age group either, which is what’s nice. I have clients from 4 to 40 and beyond who make gaming a part of their regular routine.”

“I’ve helped my clients build characters and improve goal setting by making smaller goal steps like they find in their games,” Kuniak continues. “I’ve also used some games that require voice input to help illustrate the point that when you don’t say things well — like when you’re inconsiderate to your parents — you don’t get what you want.”

Gaming proved particularly instrumental in helping one of Kuniak’s clients, a young boy with autism, move forward with therapy. At first, Kuniak says, the boy “was very resistant, and we struggled at getting any headway in his sessions.” Kuniak talked with the boy’s mother, and together they worked out a plan.

Kuniak learned that the boy was particularly a fan of the video game Halo, which requires players to build virtual worlds. Kuniak asked the boy to bring his Xbox video game system to sessions, and they began creating virtual worlds together.

“He was able to begin to talk to me [while engaged in the process],” Kuniak recounts. “Through helping him design a stage in the game, he began to trust me more, and we worked together. He very quickly began talking to me about the game and what he liked about it. He was able to identify that he didn’t like Halo [and other video games] because he got to shoot people or because he liked violence. Rather, he felt like he didn’t fit in at school, and characters like Master Chief in Halo made him feel like he was doing something good by saving the galaxy.

“When we eventually finished our treatment experience, he was able to use his … world at home. I heard back from his mom a few years later that he’d still go into that world and play around when he was having a hard time with things. She seemed to think, and I’m hopeful, that he was using it to remember all the sessions we worked through and the progress we made.”

Graphic examples

Lauren Calhoun, a doctoral student in counselor education and supervision at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology and a crisis counselor at Lutheran Social Services of Illinois’ Project Impact and Welcoming Center, thinks comic books can be a powerful tool in therapy.

“Graphic novels [and] comic books … resonate with us [because] they give examples of what we can be,” she says. “While we may never wear costumes and have superpowers, we can see how these heroes overcome obstacles, much like [we do]. They show that one has a choice on how to respond. They also deal with real issues like grief and loss, trauma, injury and belonging. Comic books also give us an escape, but it can be meaningful and aid us in learning about ourselves.”

Calhoun, a member of the American Counseling Association, recently used a graphic novel featuring Batman to explore issues of grief and loss, belonging and feeling “different” with a group of clients who were struggling with serious mental illnesses. She made copies of some of the novel’s chapters and brought them to the group, asking members to either journal about their responses to the chapters or to add their own comic book page.

Group participants were also asked to consider the actions of the characters and to talk about how they might respond in a similar situation. About four weeks into group therapy, participants began creating their own comic books, making themselves heroes or villains and identifying an antagonist. Calhoun says that just envisioning themselves as heroes was extremely helpful, whereas others portrayed their presenting problems as villains that they could then vanquish.

ACA member Emily Dennis thinks that characters such as Batman might prove especially appealing in areas such as college counseling. When she was working with students at the Counseling and Human Development Center at Kent State University, Dennis and a colleague tossed around the idea of creating a group counseling experience based on the iconic superhero.

“We discussed it being focused on increasing social skills and ‘coming out of your bat cave,’” Dennis says. “We even brainstormed a curriculum based on various behavioral levels for group members to advance toward earning a cape. Unfortunately, it never progressed further than our imaginations. … However, I think there’s potential in using characters that clients can connect to as examples in counseling. Batman is one of those characters. There are many interpretations of Batman’s mythology, but in the most basic sense, his is a story of resiliency and the duality of public and private personas, which can be important themes in counseling.”

Batman isn’t the only hero who has inspired Dennis. “Another example of a popular culture character whose story can be meaningful to clients is Harry Potter,” says Dennis, who also worked as a doctoral intern and clinical resident at Child Guidance and Family Solutions in Akron, Ohio. “A few years ago, I had an insightful teenage client who was reading the Harry Potter series during the course of our work together. Luckily, I had read the books previously, and our sessions adopted a sort of unexpected bibliotherapeutic approach. As she progressed in the seven-book series, we processed the themes of love, loss and believing in yourself, and she identified parallels in herself [and] Harry Potter. Despite the magical or supernatural aspects of these stories and characters, the essence of these examples is very human and relatable. It’s why I believe they may be of value in counseling.”

Screen savers

Dennis and Calhoun are also proponents of using television shows and movies as adjuncts to traditional counseling approaches. With one of her groups and in some individual therapy, Calhoun has used Star Wars and the TV show Doctor Who to explore issues of right and wrong and feelings of loneliness and loss.

“I would show an episode or section of the movie, then ask questions for them to journal about and share if they wanted to,” she says. In addition to using favorite characters from TV shows and movies to address major themes in counseling, this approach can provide clients with a safe avenue to talk about challenging issues in their life, she adds.

Dennis has found that TV shows can also make excellent teaching tools in the classroom. Currently a temporary faculty member in the counseling department at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Dennis recently taught a course on counseling and consulting within systems.

“When I was designing the class, I thought about showing a film that demonstrated some of the complicated dynamics that occur within systems, as well as giving my students a chance to practice creating genograms with the fictional family,” Dennis says. “I remembered that when I was a master’s student, we watched Ordinary People, which is a family therapy classic, but I wanted to push it further and match what I showed them with each of the systems theories we were learning from week to week. Sitcoms provided excellent examples of many of the systems theory concepts I was teaching. I liked that sitcoms were available through the various streaming subscriptions I had, they were 22 minutes or less and not nearly as heavy as some of the content featured in full-length feature films.”

Dennis used shows such as Black-ish, The Goldbergs, Roseanne and Everybody Loves Raymond to explore systems therapy concepts such as differentiation, triangulation and transgenerational patterns. “I created conceptualization worksheets for the students to work on in groups after we watched the episodes,” says Dennis, a doctoral candidate in counselor education and supervision. “My students reported enjoying the viewing and conceptualization activities. I think it encouraged them to think systemically, and we laughed as a class.”

Dennis cautions, however, that not all elements of pop culture can be considered therapeutic. Her school counseling students have been discussing the Netflix TV series 13 Reasons Why, which has become a ubiquitous presence in the lives and conversations of teenagers across the U.S. The show revolves around the suicide of a high school girl. Although Dennis has yet to see the show, she notes that suicide prevention experts are concerned that it might encourage copycat behavior and promotes the idea of suicide as a solution to problems and a weapon for revenge.

“I think it is important to be aware of what our clients and students are viewing or reading and the popular culture characters they idolize, celebrate or fear, especially with younger clients, who have a harder time differentiating reality from fiction,” Dennis says. “I’ve encouraged my students to research some of the popular culture references that their young clients talk about in counseling sessions. Most of the characters, shows and movies are benign, but fear and fascination provoked from characters like those in the video game Five Nights at Freddy’s or the internet meme of Slenderman are worrisome and worthy of addressing in counseling.”

The positive power of pop culture

As a whole, however, the professional counselors interviewed for this article view pop culture as a largely positive influence. Kuniak believes it even has therapeutic value for society at large.

“With all the exposure to heroic belief systems, there may be some transference of resilient ways of thinking and behaving. Because we expose ourselves to so many self-sacrificing individuals in fantasy, we can’t help but learn a little about being good people,” he explains. “Additionally, our individual areas of fandom provide us joy. There’s nothing like that. Just being able to sit down and indulge in something that provides such positive vibes can be great therapy all in itself. After that, we [counselors] need to help people use it all responsibly and take the next steps with it.”

Licensed professional counselor Josué Cardona is a proponent of “geek therapy” and a big believer in the power of pop culture. His website, Geek Therapy (geektherapy.com), started as a place to gather articles about geek culture being used in positive ways, and it now hosts six different podcasts that explore connections between pop culture, mental health and psychology.

“I see geek and pop culture as a celebration,” says Cardona, a former private practitioner in North Carolina who is currently working as a personal and professional coach in New York City. “There is a lot of positivity in communities that rally around their love of something. At a time of such polarized politics, with people itching to fight and so much negativity online, fandom and fan culture is still all about celebrating something. The reason why I enjoy comic and pop culture conventions is because everyone there is celebrating something. There is nothing but positive energy, mostly. So especially today, when so many things seem negative, imagine how beneficial it is to be a part of a group that is celebrating something, anything.

“These groups also help us feel less isolated, and thanks to social media and online communities, we can find people who like something we do, even if the people closest to us do not. In general, this … is beneficial in that it allows for social interaction and healthy relationships.”

Kuniak thinks that all counselors can — and probably should — learn how to use pop culture as a tool in their work with clients. “Most folks are acquainted in some way with the material we’re talking about … and are gaining some of the benefits of exploring geek culture — like the transference of heroic belief systems — without even knowing it,” he says. “The trick is that, at times, we need someone to guide us through that transference process, which is why I think that counselors need to be better acquainted with the medium. The culture is already laying the groundwork. If we speak the language, there’s a potential goldmine for linking in with our clients, building rapport, having a common language and helping them to make change.”

Cardona is planning to publish a “geek therapy playbook” in which he recommends several ways for counselors to integrate pop culture into their sessions. One common-sense approach is simply embracing what clients like and trying to see the world through their interests, he says. Counselors can do this by asking clients about fictional characters that they relate to or even just asking them about their current passions.

“The best insights here come from clients relating to characters and stories, seeing themselves in them and opening up about how they feel,” Cardona says. “It is often easier for a client to explain how they feel or how they see themselves by giving an example, real or fictional.”

Counselors can also use their own passions as a means of helping to explain or demonstrate a concept, Cardona says. “Think using a sports metaphor, [or] using Spider-Man to explain anxiety, or comparing a gaming mechanism to a real-life situation,” he says. “Here, although the client may not be a fan, the excitement and knowledge of the therapist can be more clearly understood and more engaging.”

When counselors use pop culture references in session, they may find that clients enjoy some of the same things, which can create a kind of shared language between them, Cardona says. For instance, when Cardona referenced Spider-Man in a session with a client, it inspired the client to talk about his own love of the X-Men — a passion that Cardona just so happens to share.

“The client was struggling with anxiety, and he said he liked comic books, so I used Spider-Man to explain anxiety,” Cardona shares. “Spider-Man is my go-to for anxiety and comic book characters because his spider-sense is a warning system, much like anxiety, and Spider-Man is one of the most popular comic book characters. I was surprised when [the client] told me he didn’t really know much about Spider-Man, but he loved the X-Men, so I asked him if there were any X-Men characters he really liked and why. He then used his own examples of X-Men characters and events that he thought represented what I was trying to explain about anxiety with Spider-Man. He continued to do this until he found a character — I believe it was Professor Xavier — whom he felt had been through a similar experience as what he was going through.”

Once Cardona was able to tap into that interest, the client went from barely speaking to becoming fully engaged in the sessions. “We shifted to discussing his symptoms in the context of the X-Men and made progress very quickly,” he says.

For counselors wishing to dive deeper into the world of comics, Calhoun recommends the website Comicspedia (comicspedia.net). “It lists several different books by topic or character as well as some ideas of how to incorporate comics into therapy,” she explains. She also suggests querying local comic book store employees if a counselor is searching for a fitting character or comics series to use with a particular client. “I have asked my local shops for suggestions, and most have been helpful,” she says.

Some counselors may like to have clients try creating their own comic books as a therapeutic tool. Helpful apps are available for creating comic books on a computer, but Calhoun says these tend to work best with individuals. In groups, she finds it easier to provide participants with blank comic strips on which to create their stories.

Says Cardona, “I see geek therapy as a mindset, and if I had to simplify it, I would say: Care about what your clients care about. We don’t have to care about gaming, for example, but it is beneficial to the therapeutic relationship that it matters to us that it matters to our clients. This enhances the counseling process in many ways: Counseling is more fun, it helps with rapport, and it can lead to insights more quickly.

“The insights are for everyone involved because I believe that the best way to understand someone is through the things that they love. So when a client talks to you about their favorite things, the things they enjoy doing, the reasons for that can include very telling insights about having related with characters or experiences in those stories.”

 

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Additional resources

Read more about how counselors are using pop culture in their work with clients:

 

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Laurie Meyers is the senior writer for Counseling Today. Contact her at lmeyers@counseling.org.

Letters to the editorct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Nonprofit News: Edible ‘offices’: Adding beauty to your program while helping the hungry

By “Doc Warren” Corson III May 26, 2017

Multitasking is a way of life for many of us, although it would appear that with ever-shrinking budgets, counselors in nonprofit settings have made a true art of it. We can no longer afford to do something that only covers one area. Instead we need to reach deeper to do more with less.

Thankfully, there is a way to mix therapy, education, recreation, nature, beautification, nutrition and holistic health — planting a vegetable garden. The best part? The effort requires little in the way of money for startup and even less in future years.

 

What is needed

  • South-facing areas: windows, pathways, greenways (anyplace that gets direct sunlight daily)
  • Access to water
  • Planting space: garden areas, pots, planters or anything that can hold soil and seeds. Be creative. We once used a windowsill and gallon milk jugs with the tops cut off.
  • Basic tools: Depending on the size and scope of the project, you might need common gardening tools or nothing more than the ability to open a bag of soil. For larger areas, you will want a hoe, garden shovel, watering can or garden hose, and clippers.
  • Seeds
  • Fertilizer
  • Storage area for tools, supplies and vegetables
  • Patience

 

How it’s done

All you need is a basic desire to plant and grow vegetables. If you use non-GMO (genetically modified organism) and nonhybrid seeds, you can collect seeds from the vegetables you grow for use in future planting. This allows for minimal startup and sustainability costs. (Note: GMO seeds can be controversial, and at times you are not allowed to collect and save the seeds because of arcane laws. Hybrid seeds are poor choices for saving because they are made from a blend of plants, and the resulting seeds are unpredictable.) If space allows, you can compost any nonedible or spoiled greens. Reusing this compost limits the need to purchase supplemental fertilizers.

Starting the program can take many paths. It can involve simply recruiting a few interested staff members, or it can involve putting out a call to the community (including those whom your nonprofit serves) to look for volunteers. I recommend having a key point person to supply basic information to interested participants. This includes educating them on how this effort ties into positive mental and physical health. The point person will also provide basic training.

Have folks commit to an activity either on a one-time basis or as an ongoing chore. A feeling of ownership will help develop their sense of belonging to the greater community. It can also help to build self-esteem, responsibility and confidence.

 

What to do with the products

Some nonprofits sell the vegetables they grow as a fundraiser. Others simply share the vegetables with those who participated in the project, and still others share with the volunteers and with the greater community. There is no right answer.

 

Case study

Here at Pillwillop Therapeutic Farm, we elected to go big with our community growing program by making field areas open to volunteers. The idea was that we could educate on nutrition, share what is harvested with volunteers and those in need, and add a small “take what you need, leave what you can” farm stand.

The first few years were marked with both successes and challenges (broccoli remains my greatest foe, as we have yet to have any real success with it). Starting with a few shovels in the dirt and water collected by hand from a nearby brook, we regularly invested in programming as possible. Applying for competitive grants and other income resources led to a $10,000 “Seeds of Change” grant, as well as other grants, which enabled us to expand our offerings greatly.

We invested thousands of dollars and thousands of man-hours to build infrastructure such as year-round water access to some fields, seasonal access to others and drip irrigation with timers to help preserve water and reduce labor. We also built two large greenhouses (“seasonal high tunnels” in government nomenclature), complete with lights, power outlets and several ADA-compliant planting beds.

We put periodic calls out for volunteers and tried to have volunteers take on leadership roles whenever possible. By modifying our planting processes, we were able to include those who are normally excluded from such programming, including older adults, those with disabilities and those who have allergies to the sun (lighting allows for nighttime planting, care and harvesting). The greenhouses, though unheated, allow for nine to 10 months of garden programming in our area of New England. In fact, April marked our first opportunity of the year to harvest cold-weather crops. We have had limited harvesting go into December.

All told, we have received very positive feedback from volunteers and the community at large. We have helped provide high-quality organic food to those who otherwise would not have access to it and have helped inspire other programs and individuals to start pocket-garden centers and personal plots. We have also seen the emergence of a real community where once there was only unused land.

 

Results

Results will vary of course, but with a little effort, some time, minimal money and community involvement, you may find that adding beauty to your nonprofit counseling program will not only help the hungry but also fill a need in your program and community.

My advice? Start as small as you need. A few cups on a windowsill in an inner-city office might lead to a rooftop garden or other community garden program.

 

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Here are some links to gardening resources for those who are interested:

  • seedsofchange.com — We have used this company’s seeds and were fortunate to win a competitive grant from them. They appear to be very community minded, and their prices are fair.
  • seedsavers.org — We just discovered this company, and this is our first year using their seeds. We were very impressed with their commitment to seed saving and promoting education on seed saving and gardening practices. You would think that educating about and promoting seed saving would be contrary to a company that sells seeds, and it is, but their greater mission is to help folks be self-sufficient and to also promote education, gardening etc.
  • johnnyseeds.com — I haven’t ordered from this company myself because I already had sources, but many of our garden friends swear by them and the quality of their seeds.
  • reimerseeds.com — I have read some negative reviews online, but in the three or so years that we have ordered tomato seeds from this company, we have had nothing but good experiences. They came highly recommended by a local commercial gardener.

This list is not meant to be exhaustive, nor is it an endorsement. There are many other great seed companies out there. It is important to explore seeds and companies to see what works best for you in terms of customer service and results in your particular environment and soil type.

 

 

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Dr. Warren Corson III

“Doc Warren” Corson III is a counselor, educator, writer and the founder, developer, and clinical and executive director of Community Counseling Centers of Central CT Inc. (www.docwarren.org) and Pillwillop Therapeutic Farm (www.pillwillop.org). Contact him at docwarren@docwarren.org. Additional resources related to nonprofit design, documentation and related information can be found at docwarren.org/supervisionservices/resourcesforclinicians.html.

 

 

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Behind the Book: The Creative Arts in Counseling

By Bethany Bray April 3, 2017

The power of creativity to spark change and progress in clients has fueled the growth of play therapy, wilderness therapy, animal-assisted therapy and other interventions in recent decades. But when Samuel Gladding first began to use creative approaches with clients in the 1970s, it was far from mainstream.

Gladding, a professor in the Department of Counseling at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina and past president of the American Counseling Association has made creativity a focal point of his storied career.

“Counseling is a profession that focuses on making human experience constructive, meaningful and enjoyable both on a preventive and on a remedial level,” Gladding writes in The Creative Arts in Counseling, of which ACA recently published a fifth edition. “It is like art in its emphasis on expressiveness, structure and uniqueness. It is also creative in its originality and its outcomes. Both are novel, practical and significant.”

 

Counseling Today sent Gladding some questions, via email, to learn more:

 

In your opinion, what makes the creative arts a “good fit” for counseling?

Counseling is a creative process. It is both an art and a science just like medicine. The ideal Holland Code for a counselor contains the artistic element as well as the social, enterprising and/or investigative code. As counselors we are always trying to figure out how we can help our clients solve or resolve a problem. The creative arts offer a number of ways to do this. For instance, we know from the research of James Pennebaker that writing about one’s stress on a regular basis has a way of alleviating that stress and promoting mental and physical health. We also know that moving, whether waltzing or walking, is incompatible with depression. Likewise, humor releases endorphins into the blood stream and helps elevate feelings. It may also add years to one’s life – as in the case of Norman Cousins who documented his use of humor and how it positively affected his life in Anatomy of an Illness.

Overall, the creative arts are a tool that counselors can use regardless of their theoretical orientation. They help clients work through the difficulties in their lives and learn how to be more resilient.

 

What would you want counselors to know about this topic, considering that creative approaches (dance and movement therapy, play therapy, etc.) have grown in popularity in recent decades? Are there any misconceptions or things to be aware of?

I would like counselors to know that the creative arts have been used to foster health and healing since ancient times. The creative arts help us maintain or regain balance in life. Furthermore, while there are only antidotal stories from earlier times, such as David playing the harp to calm King Saul or drama as a relief for depression in ancient Greece, there is a plethora of evidence research now that shows how the creative arts – music, movement, visual art, writing, humor, etc. – work in promoting emotional and physical wellness and well-being.

The creative arts are not a luxury. They are a necessity if we want our clients and ourselves to live productive and meaningful lives. Well-designed and significant scholarship on the power and potential of the creative arts in human life is abundant and important.

The creative arts are not a panacea for all the situations clients bring us. They can help clients gain insight, a new perspective and even make needed changes. However, before using the creative arts in counseling situations, counselors should read the research.

 

You write [in The Creative Arts and Counseling] that the creative arts “help to make clients more sensitive to themselves.” How so — can you elaborate?

Let’s take the visual arts as an example of how a creative art helps make clients more sensitive to themselves. It is impossible to paint or draw without recognizing after the process has been complete (and actually during the process) that you are representing your perception, feelings – and indeed yourself – on paper or canvas. Most of the creative arts are projective in nature and leave a trail or weave a story into a reality whether physically, as in the case of photography, or mentally, as in the case of movement (e.g., muscle memory). Once you experience yourself drawing, writing, dancing, acting, making music or getting involved in telling a story or creating humor, you can never be the same again. As in the case of Julius Caesar, you have crossed the Rubicon and the only way to go is forward.

Overall, the creative arts help people see and feel differently and become something they were not before. The process and sometimes the product involved in creating moves individuals forward in ways they may not have expected. In other cases, it makes dreams become tangible and sets up a new lifestyle for the person involved.

 

What advice would you give to a counselor who would like to introduce creative methods into their counseling practice but is unsure on how to get started?

For novice counselors who are unsure on how to get started in using creative methods in their counseling practices, I would recommend three things. First, join the Association for Creativity in Counseling (ACC), a division of the American Counseling Association (ACA). ACC produces a first rate journal edited by Thelma Duffey: the Journal of Creativity in Mental Health.

Second, go to the conferences of ACC and ACA. Both have outstanding workshops by experienced professionals that can help counselors learn how to use creative methods appropriately.

Finally, read the books and research articles in the field that have a historical and practical significance. Look up research on creativity under Google Scholar or download videos that show what to do when and how. Also, attend webinars or summer courses on creativity in counseling that are offered on a number of platforms and at a number of counseling programs worldwide.

 

What prompted you to work on a fifth edition of this book? What’s new and different in this edition?

I was prompted to work on the fifth edition of The Creative Arts in Counseling because there is so much new in the field. The fourth edition had become dated. There is a lot that is different in the fifth edition but let me point out three. First, new research has been incorporated into the book and readers will find the latest information on how practitioners are using the creative arts and creative methods in their work.

Second, I have included a new chapter on animal-assisted therapy, horticultural therapy and nature or wilderness counseling. Creativity encompasses all aspects of life. Sometimes we compose, paint, or dance to find relief and be more productive. At other times, creativity is inspired from other living life forms. I worked at Pier 94 after Sept. 11, 2001. The therapy dogs there were a very meaningful part of my work as a counselor and I saw how they helped others in stress and distress. Thus, I wanted to include pet therapy in this edition of the book. I am also aware through the research and observation that many people find solace and peace through digging in the soil and growing plants or through communing with nature. Numerous studies show the power of the earth and nature to calm, enrich and inspire people while giving them solace and hope.

A third new aspect of the fifth edition is that I have included a chapter that contains all of the 121 exercises in the book, where they can be found in the text and how they can be used. This is a user-friendly chapter. It will help readers in locating information that they can incorporate in their counseling practices.

 

What makes you, personally, interested in and passionate about creativity in counseling?

The first five years of my counseling career were as clinician in a rural mental health center in North Carolina. I did not have wise, experienced mental health professionals to help guide me. Instead, I was one of a staff of five serving a population catchment area of 70,000. There was little time to receive supervision or even talk over cases. I used all of the theories and techniques I learned in graduate school but I found that on occasions that was not enough.

In the midst of this immersion into the mental health world, I noticed that clients often brought me pictures, poems, songs and other creative aspects of life that they thought were significant. While other clinicians saw these tangible ways of expressing emotions and thoughts as secondary, I did not. Clients were doing a lot of work on their own without a lot of knowledge about how it was helping them. It was important to recognize what they were doing for the power it had in their lives.

Unfortunately, there was not a lot of verifiable evidence on the uses of the creative arts then (This was the 1970s). However, I saw the potential of using creativity and the creative arts in improving the lives of individuals with whom I was working. Bob Dylan was singing: “You don’t have to be a weatherman to know which way the wind is blowing.” I realized I was in the midst of a time when the climate of mental health was changing and blowing in different directions. I was anxious to learn all I could about creativity and the creative arts. Thus, I saved up my money and attended every workshop I could on the subject, bought every book I became aware of and read journal articles in reputable periodicals. In the process, I discovered scholarship on creativity and the creative arts. I also uncovered a passion in myself to use the creative arts in the service of humanity.

The first edition of The Creative Arts in Counseling was published in 1992. ACA took a chance with me in publishing this book. Now creativity and the creative arts in counseling is considered mainstream. There is an abundance of scholarly articles and evidence-based practices on using creativity and the creative arts in counseling and, of course, thanks to Thelma Duffey and others there is an ACA division on creativity in mental health. I know from firsthand experience how creativity and the creative arts work in clinical settings. They are transformative. I am committed to helping other counselors learn about them too.

The creative arts are but one more tool in a counselor’s toolbox. They should be used thoughtfully and with care. They are like knives in that they have the power to help or hurt. That is why it is important to see the creative arts used in empowering, evidence-based and therapeutic ways.

 

 

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The Creative Arts in Counseling, Fifth Edition is available both in print and as an e-book from the American Counseling Association bookstore at counseling.org/publications/bookstore or by calling 800-422-2648 x 222

 

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Bethany Bray is a staff writer for Counseling Today. Contact her at bbray@counseling.org

 

Follow Counseling Today on Twitter @ACA_CTonline and on Facebook at facebook.com/CounselingToday.

 

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

 

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The Social Adventures and Experiments of  Tommy Joe Peterson

By Brandon S. Ballantyne February 7, 2017

The idea of this therapeutic short story is to creatively illustrate the various dilemmas that occur from the perspective of a socially awkward young man, Tommy Joe Peterson. Through the story, the reader is able to gain perspective on the thought process and problem-solving skills of this uniquely talented 11-year-old boy.

Whether this fictional story is read by a child or read to a child by a teacher or counselor, the discussion questions included at the end are aimed at facilitating reflection and interpersonal growth. I believe that discussing the responses to the discussion questions will allow for improved awareness and insight into real-life dilemmas and help children to improve their problem-solving skills in a creative, narrative manner.

The target population for my therapeutic short story consists of teachers, parents, therapists and children of elementary through middle school age, particularly those with a mental health diagnosis similar to or consistent with autism spectrum disorder or social anxiety.

Friendship

Hello, my name is Tommy Joe. I am 11 years old. And in my mind, I am not just a boy. I am the world’s most coolest teenage superhero in my school. Well, at least I pretend to be.

Let me tell you about the time I almost saved my friend William from a flying plate of steaming hot lasagna in the cafeteria. Oh, and just so you know, William is only a few months younger than me. This is what happened …

The day started out just like any other day. I woke up at 6:37 a.m. I always wake up at that time to ensure that I get as many cartoons in as I can before I leave for school at exactly 8:02 a.m. I like the superhero cartoons. Batman is obviously the best, and I think I am like him in some ways. Although most adults say I am socially awkward, whatever that means. Clearly, they do not understand my abilities.

Anyway, after my cartoon time, my mother prompted me to participate in what she calls “activities of daily living.” She is a nurse, and I hear those types of phrases all the time. I have gotten used to it. This is the part of my morning routine during which I brush my teeth and comb through my brown wavy hair. I usually place some deodorant under each armpit, but not a lot. I typically do not like the texture, but I tolerate it enough to get at least a little bit of scent on me. Every good superhero needs a scent — at least that is what my mother tells me.

It was almost time to leave for school, so I slipped on my Velcro shoes and placed my bright red turtleneck on so it fit nice and snug, just the way I like it. I refuse to wear anything else but that red turtleneck. I feel most like a superhero in that shirt. Some people tease me for this. They clearly do not understand my abilities.

The bus ride to school is short. I live only four blocks from the school. And as a fifth-grader, riding the bus is the cool thing to do. On that day, the older kids were making fun of the way I was dressed. They always do. They also make fun of the way I only spray certain sections of my hair. You see, only some sections of my hair get messy, so there is no need to hairspray it all down. Only certain sections need a touch-up.

I do not think that the other kids understand my perspective. I don’t mind though. Life can be hard for a superhero like me. Clearly the other kids on the bus do not understand my abilities. And anything is better than riding to school with your parents, although my mother does listen to good music. But that is beside the point, and I do not want to ramble on, so let’s get back to the story of how I almost saved my friend William from an extremely steaming hot plate of lasagna.

I meet my friend William at the same spot every day before going into school. Every superhero needs a sidekick, and William is mine. William is shorter than me, and he refuses to be called Billy. He thinks that William is more formal, and he likes that. He has red curly hair and orange glasses. I do not really know where he got those glasses, but I like them. His glasses usually slip down to the end of his nose, and he has to spend most of the day adjusting and readjusting them. We have every class together. Every superhero needs a sidekick, and at least William understands my abilities.

The day was pretty boring until art class. It is like that every day. William and I count down the minutes leading up to our fourth-period art class. For us, it is more than just art class. It is a time for us to create new supercool superhero ideas. And on this day, the topic of class was “favorite transportation.” This was a perfect topic for superheroes like us.

William and I decided to create a spaceship. This was no ordinary spaceship. This was a supercool spaceship that William and I had imagined ourselves using to explore the outermost limits of our galaxy — beyond the black holes, red dwarfs, supernovas and solar flares.

By the way, space is my other supercool area of interest. William is mostly indifferent to the idea of space travel, but every superhero needs a sidekick, and because of that, I think he would come with me anyway. I guess the only problem would be if William gets motion sickness. I wonder if he gets sick in the car? To tell you the truth, I do not really know how William gets to school each day. I have never been in a car with him. Quite frankly, I only see him at school. Oh well, I do not want to ramble. Let’s get back to the story of how I almost saved William from an extremely overwhelming, steaming hot plate of lasagna in the school cafeteria.

Before describing the scene that would be about to take place in the cafeteria, it is important for me to be able to tell you how our art project turned out. William and I made a spaceship using cardboard, paint and a whole lot of glue. The spaceship was red, just like my turtleneck.

William is exceptionally good at folding cardboard, so I gave him the job of working on the wings. William attached long, narrow wings that seemed as if they would touch the ceiling. We carefully added glue to all the areas that needed to be held together, and then we added more glue, and then more glue, and then one last coating of glue to ensure that this spaceship could tolerate the astronomical elements that space travel would bring to the table. Every good astronaut needs a sidekick.

Our hands were sticky from the glue. It was hard for us to pull our fingers apart. But our spaceship was complete. William and I carefully placed the spaceship in our art closet to dry.

The bell rang for lunch. We hurried out of the classroom without cleaning up the rest of our materials. This was necessary because we need to get to lunch early so that we can sit at the table in the left corner — the one by the ice cream cooler. I like ice cream sandwiches, and it is important to be next to the cooler so that I can get two of them before they sell out. Every superhero needs his energy, and I just happen to get mine from ice cream sandwiches.

William prefers pizza, but they do not always have that. I once had the idea of putting my ice cream sandwiches on my pizza, but I have not been able to convince William to try it with me. And as a superhero, you need your sidekick to be on board before trying anything new. But that is for another story. Let’s get back to this one. I don’t want to ramble.

William and I entered the cafeteria and at a casual but fast pace assumed positions at our table by the ice cream cooler. The cafeteria was loud and chaotic as various students attempted to jockey for position in the lunch line. The teacher on duty was obviously struggling to keep order. I could tell by the look on her face. I did not have this teacher for class, but any good superhero can tell when another person is in obvious distress. I wish I could have helped her, but I needed to remain in position at my table.

This was partly due to the fact that the ice cream cooler is positioned just outside the kitchen, and as kids pass through the lunch line, they typically select their favorite ice cream product to complete their tray. William and I do it backward — we wait for a break in the line, and then we purchase our desserts first. Most kids do not think of going to the ice cream cooler first because it is positioned at the end of the line. Being the most supercool superhero that I am, I had developed this approach early last year. William agreed with me, although he typically does. William is a great sidekick.

The time was right. William and I stood up to go make our selection. I always purchase two ice cream sandwiches. William typically purchases the Italian ice. At least I think he does. Anyway, it was at that moment when we stood up that I began to notice an increase in chaos in the far right-hand side of the cafeteria. I quickly glanced over, and before picking out my ice cream, I noticed a food fight taking place. It was on the other side of the cafeteria, but it appeared as though it was escalating rapidly.

I needed to get my ice cream. I reached down and realized that I could not pull my fingers apart to grab it. Oh no, it was my worst nightmare. My fingers had been glued together from working on our spaceship in art class. It seemed that the harder I tried to pull them apart, the more they seemed to be glued together.

I had one dilemma with not being able to literally pick up my ice cream sandwich, and another dilemma with the rapidly growing food fight that was moving across the cafeteria like a tidal wave. I had to make a decision. I either needed to take cover and sacrifice my ice cream sandwich, or I needed to take the chance of being hit by food and attempt to grab my ice cream with my glued-together fingers. I had to think quickly.

At that moment, I noticed a red substance flying through the air toward William. I saw it out of the corner of my eye, so it was hard for me to tell what it was. But as it flew through the air, I realized that it was a piece of lasagna. It was hot. I could see the steam coming off of it as it whizzed past the heads of various students.

At this point, even the teachers were taking cover. Mr. Jones was under the table, and Ms. Sprockett was hiding behind the soda machine. The flying lasagna was coming our way, and based on my superhero calculations, it was heading directly toward William.

Everything was moving in slow motion. William was frozen in fear. He needed me. I quickly lunged in his direction and raised my hands in an attempt to take most of the blow from the flying lasagna. Every good superhero occasionally makes sacrifices for his sidekick — at least Batman did.

The only problem was that my fingers were still glued together. The lasagna not only hit my arms, covering me in sauce, but it also smothered William. He had sauce and cheese all over him. And the worst part of it was, I didn’t even get my ice cream sandwiches. The last thing I remember was William tasting the lasagna that was dripping off of his cheeks. William is always good at embracing chaos.

I guess even the best superheroes sometimes have trouble rescuing others. But William and I are still friends. He has forgiven me, and there are no hard feelings between us. I guess what I have learned from this situation is that every superhero needs a sidekick. I do not know what I would do without William. He is my best friend. But maybe next time, I won’t use so much glue.

 

Therapeutic discussion questions 

  • According to Tommy Joe, every superhero needs a sidekick. Who is the sidekick in your life? Who do you feel supported by? Who listens to you when you talk?
  • What makes someone a friend? What makes you a friend? What types of things do friends do for one another?
  • Discuss a difficult situation that a friend helped you with. What did they do to support you?
  • Discuss a difficult situation that you helped a friend with. What did you do to support them?
  • The glue on Tommy Joe’s fingers makes it difficult for him to rescue William and pick up his ice cream sandwiches. What should Tommy Joe have done prior to going into the cafeteria that would have made it easier for him to help William?
  • What is a goal you have in your life? What is an obstacle you face in your life? How can you plan ahead to make accomplishing your goal easier?
  • What can your sidekick do to help you reach your goal?
  • If you were Tommy Joe, what would you have done differently in the story? How would making different decisions have affected the outcome of the story?
  • Is there another way the story could have ended? If so, I would love to hear your version.

 

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Brandon S. Ballantyne, a licensed professional counselor and national certified counselor, has been practicing clinical counseling since 2007. He currently practices at Reading Health System in Reading, Pennsylvania, and Advanced Counseling and Research Services in Lancaster. He has experience working with both adolescent and adult clients struggling with moderate to severe depression and anxiety. He has facilitated many unique interventions and group modalities in the area of addressing relationship conflict and negative thought patterns. Contact him at ballantynebrandon@yahoo.com.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

Counseling Today reviews unsolicited articles written by American Counseling Association members. To access writing guidelines and tips for having your article accepted for publication, go to ct.counseling.org/feedback.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.