Tag Archives: Multiculturalism & Diversity

Multiculturalism & Diversity

Addressing ethnic self-hatred in Latinx undergraduates

By Carlos P. Hipolito-Delgado September 3, 2018

When Europeans first made contact with the indigenous peoples of the Americas, a path toward Eurocentrism was set in the Western Hemisphere. In the years since the conquest and colonization of North America and the establishment of the United States, the cultural values and social policies of this country have favored people of Western European heritage.

Although the sociopolitical and cultural superiority of Europeans validates the experience of white Americans, these edicts render Latinx communities marginalized or invisible. What is worse, people of Latinx descent might come to accept the superiority of the white population. When this occurs, a person is said to have internalized racism.

In the 2006 article “Naming racism: A conceptual look at internalized racism in U.S. schools,” Lindsay Pérez Huber, Robin N. Johnson and Rita Kohli defined internalized racism as “the conscious and unconscious acceptance of a racial hierarchy in which whites are consistently ranked above People of Color. … It is the internalization of the beliefs, values and worldviews inherent in white supremacy.”

Internalized racism is thought to have negative physical and psychological consequences for people of color. Even so, the bulk of the research on internalized racism has focused on communities of African descent. Most of this research can be credited to Jerome Taylor, as either he conducted these studies or other researchers used his survey instrument, the Nadanolitization scale, to assess internalized racism.

Research studies have linked internalized racism in communities of African descent with increased abdominal fat, higher glucose levels and larger waist circumference, which are indicators of more serious health concerns. Additionally, internalized racism has been linked to marital dissatisfaction, increased depressive symptoms, increased stress, decreased self-esteem and decreased life satisfaction. In one of the few studies examining internalized racism in Latinx communities, I found that internalized racism was negatively related to ethnic identity development among Latinx undergraduates.

Although it appears that internalized racism has a negative impact on communities of color, we do not know why racism gets internalized. Two prominent theories are that 1) exposure to racism leads to its internalization and 2) acculturation to a racist society leads to the internalization of racist values. The exposure to racism hypothesis is largely grounded in social conditioning, in which repeated exposure to racism ultimately leads an individual to accept racist notions as truth. The acculturation hypothesis argues that by adopting the values of a racist society, the individual must accept racist notions in conjunction.

The research

Given the limited research on internalized racism in Latinx communities and the desire to better understand why racism is internalized, I undertook a study guided by two research questions:

1) Does exposure to racism predict the internalization of racism in Latinx undergraduates?

2) Does acculturation to U.S. society predict the internalization of racism in Latinx undergraduates?

(A quick note on usage of the word Latinx. Spanish is a gendered language with masculine and feminine pronouns; some readers might be more familiar with the usage of Latina and Latino, for example. To break from these gendered conventions and to be more inclusive of folks who do not identify strictly with one gender, scholars and activists have called for the usage of Latinx.)

Participants in this study were recruited from college Latinx student organizations. Using a variety of group email lists, I reached out to faculty and student advisers at two- and four-year colleges and universities and solicited their aid in recruiting potential participants. In total, 350 first-generation Latinx students participated in this study. These participants represented 93 universities from 29 states. All of the participants self-identified as Latinx. Furthermore, 75.7 percent of the participants identified as female, 20.6 percent identified as male, 0.3 percent identified as transgender and 1.1 percent identified as other (2.3 percent of participants declined to identify). The average age of participants was 21.81.

Participants completed an online survey consisting of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS), the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AMAS) and the Mochihua Tepehuani scale. Furthermore, I used hierarchical linear regression in an attempt to answer my research questions regarding the cause of internalized racism. The Mochihua Tepehuani, a revised version of the Nadanolitization scale adapted to assess internalized racism in Latinx communities, acted as the criterion variable in the analysis. The EDS assessed exposure to racial discrimination. The AMAS was used to assess participants’ degree of acculturation to U.S. culture and values. Both exposure to racism and acculturation acted as predictor variables in this study.

Through hierarchical linear regression, I was able to assess the strength of the overall model with both exposure to racism and acculturation acting as predictors of internalized racism and the individual impact of the two predictor variables. Although the overall model was statistically significant, the amount of variance accounted for by this model was slight (R2 = .06, p < .001). This means that the relationship between the predictor and criterion variables is not likely due to chance, but that the predictive power of combined variables is small. Individually, exposure to racism (β = .14, p < .05) and acculturation (β = .20, p < .001) were significant predictors. In this case, a one standardized point change in exposure to racism or acculturation produced a .14 or .20 standardized point change, respectively, in the internalized racism scores of participants.

Based on these results, it appears that both research questions can be answered in the affirmative: Both exposure to racism and acculturation to U.S. society predict internalized racism in Latinx undergraduate students.

Interrupting racism’s impacts

Although most counselors might intuitively know that racism negatively affects Latinx undergraduates, the findings of this study provide empirical evidence of racism’s impacts. Furthermore, the impacts of racism — hurt feelings, a sense of exclusion and the like — are not fleeting. Rather, the impacts linger in the minds of Latinx undergraduates. Over time, the cumulative impacts of racist encounters can lead to the internalization of racism, ultimately steering Latinx undergraduates to conscious or unconscious acceptance of the cultural and intellectual superiority of whites.

To intervene in the internalization of racism, counselors are encouraged to help Latinx undergraduates talk through instances of discrimination. This begins with validating students’ perceptions that they have experienced racism. The challenge with processing incidences of discrimination is that racism can be subtle and subjective — as in the case of microaggressions. This inability to objectively say that a racist incident has occurred might lead some individuals to dismiss or downplay the incident.

Recently, I was working with a university student who shared a story of experiencing discrimination on campus. The student, uncertain of how to make sense of the event, shared her experience with a good friend, who immediately told her she was making a big deal out of nothing. After talking through these events with me, the student came to the realization that her friend’s reaction was more hurtful than the original discriminatory event had been. When processing an incidence of racism, it is important to remember that the perception of the event can be more important than the facts of the event. Therefore, a microaggression might not be a big deal for me as a Chicano counselor who has dealt with racism all of my life, but it could be a huge deal for a student who is experiencing racism for the first time. As such, we should take time to validate the perceptions of the student.

Another strategy I have found useful in helping Latinx undergraduates process incidences of discrimination is to examine the source of racist notions. Beverly Tatum (in her classic text Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?) explained that biased thoughts are a product of limited information. From this perspective, bias is a product of the perpetrator’s ignorance; the person possesses limited information about the Latinx community and has made a gross generalization.

After talking through a student’s emotions surrounding an incident of discrimination, I will introduce Tatum’s perception of bias. My hope is for the student to realize that racism is not the student’s fault. It is not a reflection of the student’s culture or heritage, but instead is the product of a biased perpetrator and a racist society. This typically alleviates some of the student’s stress and allows the student to see the interaction in a new light.

Avoiding assimilation

The melting pot and other assimilationist notions can be viewed as an American ideal. Assimilation tends to gain popularity in communities of color during periods of heightened racism. Since the presidential election of 2016, Latinx communities have faced an onslaught of racist depictions by politicians and media outlets. This is especially true of the Mexican community, whose members have been described as drug dealers, rapists and murderers by President Donald Trump.

In an attempt to avoid racism and discrimination, Latinx parents might try to expedite assimilation in their children by promoting the adoption of traditional American cultural values and the abandonment of Latinx values. The belief is that Americanization will enable Latinx youth to pass as Americans and avoid racism. Alas, the promotion of assimilation leads to the portrayal of American culture as being superior to Latinx culture — the very definition of internalized racism described earlier.

Unfortunately, some Latinx individuals are overdetermined by their physical features; dark-skinned folks such as myself can never pass as Euro American. Regardless of attempts to assimilate, we will always be recognized for our cultural heritage. As such, an assimilationist upbringing can backfire if Latinx students experience rejection from their white peers for being too brown. These same students can then also be excluded by their Latinx peers for not being Latinx enough. In part for this reason, I encourage counselors to help Latinx families take a strength-based perspective on their cultural heritage and to look to biculturalism over assimilation.

Assimilationist notions also have a history in higher education. Respected higher education scholar Vincent Tinto described the need for students to assimilate to the college campus and leave the home culture behind to be successful and persist to graduation. Alas, campus climates are a reflection of Euro-American values. Higher education personnel who promote an assimilationist agenda of higher education success also promote notions of American cultural superiority, thus increasing the Americanization of Latinx undergraduates and, potentially, increasing the internalization of racism.

Fortunately, higher education scholars such as Sylvia Hurtado have recognized the flaws in Tinto’s early work and promoted models of student engagement that recognize the positive influence of cultural heritage, family and community. Furthermore, Hurtado and her colleagues have argued that assimilationist models do not accurately account for the success and persistence of students of color in higher education.

Based on the work of Hurtado, a multidimensional approach might be better for promoting the success of Latinx undergraduates and avoiding the internalization of racism. In a multidimensional approach, Latinx students are encouraged to retain their ethnic culture, remain engaged with cultural support systems and view culture as a resource in promoting their academic success. Similarly, undergraduates learn about the culture of their institution and the skills necessary for them to successfully navigate higher education. A significant body of research supports this multidimensional approach, but for this perspective to be successful, higher education personnel must recognize the value of traditional support systems.

A first step toward this is helping Latinx students recognize the value of their culture and heritage. This can include promotion of Latinx ethnic identity, such as exploring what it personally means to be Latinx and building connections with other Latinx students, for example. Positive Latinx ethnic identity is linked to increased persistence in higher education and higher GPA and might also block the internalization of racism.

Second, institutions of higher education can also work to affirm Latinx culture on campus. This includes holding cultural celebrations; recognizing the achievements of Latinx students, staff, faculty and community members; and providing space for Latinx students to study and socialize.

Finally, higher education personnel can find ways to collaborate with Latinx families and communities.

These combined interventions signal to Latinx students that their culture and community are of value, reducing the perceived superiority of whiteness and, subsequently, blocking the internalization of racism.

Conclusion

Although counselors might intuitively know that racism and internalized racism negatively affect Latinx undergraduates, the full impact of internalized racism will remain unknown until additional research is conducted. Within the context of higher education, it would be helpful to know how internalized racism influences academic performance and persistence. In addition, it would be helpful to know how internalized racism affects self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and depression. Finally, knowing how and why racism is internalized might lead to better strategies to interrupt this process.

Although additional research is needed on the topic of internalized racism in Latinx undergraduates, this study represents an important step in empirically documenting factors that lead to the internalization of racism. It is my hope that this article inspires counselors to consider the impacts of internalized racism and strategies that they might take to help Latinx undergraduates avoid internalized racism.

 

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Knowledge Share articles are developed from sessions presented at American Counseling Association conferences

Carlos P. Hipolito-Delgado is associate professor in counseling at the University of Colorado Denver. He researches the ethnic identity development of Chicanas/os and Latinas/os, the effects of internalized racism on students of color, the sociopolitical development of students of color and how to improve the cultural competence of counselors. He currently serves as the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development representative on the ACA Governing Council and is the past chair of the ACA Foundation. Contact him at carlos.hipolito@ucdenver.edu or on Twitter @DrCarlosHD.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

 

Self-care for the activist counselor

By Shekila Melchior and Dannette Gomez Beane June 4, 2018

An activist is a person who campaigns and takes action for social change. Counselors are often activists for their clients and for their profession by nature of being in a helping field.

The issue of self-care looms for both counselor practitioners and counselor educators as we face difficult client issues, large caseloads and demanding work environments. The need for self-care only intensifies when societal issues grow more divisive and combative, as we have experienced over the past year or more. Contentious social movements and issues such as #BlackLivesMatter and immigration can have an impact on the climate of care we provide as counselors for our clients and for the communities in which we live.

A tale of two doctoral students

Being a doctoral counseling student is stressful. Being a doctoral counseling student whose research is directly affected by the social movements and climate of the nation is even more stressful.

Shekila’s journey

When I (Shekila Melchior) chose my dissertation topic, “The Social Justice Identity Development of School Counselors Who Advocate for Undocumented Students,” in spring 2016, I had no idea what lay ahead. At the time of my data collection, a heated and divisive presidential election was unfolding in which the issue of undocumented immigration had turned into a political platform. The United States was inundated with xenophobic remarks, anti-immigrant rhetoric and the proposition of erecting physical structures to prevent individuals from entering the country.

On Election Day, concern turned to fear for many people who were confronted with the harsh reality of an unstable future — namely, that their ability to continue residing in the United States was in peril. After the election of President Donald Trump, I questioned whether anyone would participate in my research interviews regarding undocumented students. The climate in our country had changed, but my timeline for defending my research had not.

As an advocate, I was flooded with messages about protest marches and prompting me to write to Congress and participate in meetings to educate others. As a friend, I listened to the concerns of those closest to me who were fearful of deportation and of the possible termination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, implemented by the Obama administration to provide temporary protections to undocumented immigrants who arrived in the United States as children. As a researcher, I encountered participants who were concerned for their students and eager for their voices — and the voices of their students — to be heard.

Dannette’s journey

When I (Dannette Gomez Beane) chose my dissertation topic, “Virginia Counselors’ Engagement With Social Issues Advocacy for Black/African American Clients/Students” in spring 2017, I never could have predicted what would occur that fall. During the time that I was engaged in my data collection, the white supremacist rallies that ended in violence and death in Charlottesville, Virginia, transpired. The topic of race relations was suddenly on everyone’s mind, but especially mine as my dissertation clock ticked.

I had difficulty telling people about my research. People didn’t understand why we were always talking about race. People found it even more bizarre that, as a Latina, I had chosen a topic that concerned African Americans. My reasons for picking the topic had everything to do with the revolving door of students in my office who could not attend class, turn in assignments or even talk to their friends because they felt so debilitated from what was going on around them. I just kept thinking, “What can I do to help? What are counselors in my state doing to help these students?”

Responses and critical incidents

We (Shekila and Dannette) processed our own personal reactions to these events. The issues that arose during the writing of our dissertations served as motivation to complete our research. Although both of us feared the worst, we hoped for the best as our research progressed. Our fear was that what was occurring nationally and regionally would silence the participation of counselors, causing them to retreat to neutrality out of a concern of responding in a socially undesirable way. Our hope was that counselors would rise to the occasion and speak on behalf of those marginalized populations that needed advocacy. Ultimately, both of us were successful in our data collection, and the respondents to our studies commented with expressions of concern for themselves and their clients/students.

One counselor who responded to Dannette’s study said, “I work in a rural county in the South and have about 20 percent of my population that is African American. I also work in a system very close to Charlottesville. We always have race issues.”

A participant in Shekila’s study shared the frustrations of their students. The participant recalled a time when one of their students wore a T-shirt that said “Relax Trump, I’m Legal.” Another participant who was a DACA recipient was concerned that he might no longer be able to work with his students if DACA were repealed.

The “critical incident” experienced by the advocate begins a process of cognitive dissonance, a “waking up.” According to Leon Festinger’s theory, when individuals experience cognitive dissonance, it changes the core of what they believe, leading them to wrestle with new information in light of things they have previously understood (for more, see Paul C. Gorski’s article “Cognitive dissonance as a strategy in social justice training” in the Fall 2009 issue of Multicultural Education). Thus, advocates begin to recognize the shift within themselves as it relates to a social issue.

Encountering an undocumented student as a high school counselor served as my (Shekila’s) critical incident. In that moment, I felt helpless and uninformed, but through that critical incident, I began my research, which later propelled me to a place of advocacy.

One of my research participants made a statement about how activist counselors develop: “I think that over time, because of my being sensitive to some of their [undocumented students’] struggles and just seeing the human side to their stories … there’s stuff that you don’t learn being in the counseling program. It’s like baptism by fire with that. It’s not something that I can teach. You can’t teach people to be empathetic like that. You can certainly tell them this is how you go about it, but you either have that or you don’t have that. You may be able to awaken something in someone with it, but if it’s not there, it’s not there.”

Dannette’s research is informed by racial identity development theory, with “encounter” being a stage in which a person is faced with the realization that race matters. Counselors who experience these “critical” or “encounter” moments are undeterred from participating with and advocating for others. On the other hand, counselors who have not experienced such a profound incident may not be as moved to engage in social issues advocacy.

As one of Dannette’s study respondents shared, “During an incident that occurred last year at my school when a black/African American student was suspended, I was told by my admin to stay out of it. I felt strongly that the way it was handled was discrimination, and [I] was very disturbed. I was able to discuss the incident with the parent in private and give [her] tools to help advocate for her son. She was also upset because of the way it was managed. I was not able to get into it too deeply with the parent because I felt my job was in jeopardy. However, I was able to encourage her to take it further and add insight into the best way to do so.”

The adversity we face in our work, school and personal lives for participating in social issues advocacy is heightened when incidents occur that feed the political divisiveness. The emotional toil that advocating takes on the activist counselor can be daunting. The work is ever-changing and never-ending. The activist counselor strives to always be informed and to inform others. The greater the degree of political divisiveness, the more strain it can take on the activist counselor. Compassion fatigue can set in, which brings us to self-care.

Avoid, engage, deflect

How can we seek and find comfort, understanding and care when we make our living and have developed our identities as activist counselors? Speaking as the authors of this article, we rely on peer support, faculty advisers, family members, friends and faith communities. At times, however, these normal sources of support and encouragement do not align with the activist mentality; in fact, they sometimes choose to remain neutral or even work against the advocacy. In such cases, activist counselors are left to do one of the following: avoid, engage or deflect.

Note: We (the authors) avoid going to social media for support because we find that causes another layer of stress that will not be addressed in this article.

Avoidance

Our identity as activist counselors is hard to shut off. Some would argue that it never shuts off. Avoiding times when our “buttons are pushed” is a skill that takes practice. The benefit to avoiding adversarial opinions is that of self-preservation. We sometimes “pick our battles” when engaging in dialogue and try to focus on the outcome of peace if avoidance is the best decision. The risk is that we miss a teachable moment or fail to use our place of privilege to educate others.

Engagement

As activist counselors, we are good at compartmentalizing our needs and views for the well-being of others, but when it comes to standing up for what we believe in outside of the therapeutic relationship, we typically take the opportunity to engage.

We often encourage our clients to engage with conflict because it is a practice that almost always results in growth and stretching. Engaging with conflict is natural for counselors who help others to face their fears, practice change and reframe ideologies. The benefit of engaging with adversarial views is that dialogue can emerge, allowing opportunities to increase understanding of and empathy for the other’s view. The risk of this engagement is that the dialogue might turn into an argument, with one-sided views and the shutting down of a topic or, worse, a relationship. As counselors, we are trained to de-escalate these types of heated situations, finding ways to redirect or, in some instances, deflect.

Deflection

Here it comes. You have no time to avoid or engage. A person in your life just dropped a statement that goes against your activist counselor mindset and identity. You know what this sounds like. It is a statement such as “I don’t see _____. All people are the same in my eyes” or “Those people need to ______.” You are left to react without warning.

One approach, especially when caught off guard, is to deflect. The risk in deflecting is that we may seem like we are not paying attention to what the person is saying because we choose to change the topic. This could cause suspicion or hurt if the person is hoping for our engagement in this topic. The benefit is that we do not engage in what could be a relationship-ending conversation depending on the situation.

Recharging the activist self

Avoidance, engagement and deflection are just three examples of ways to approach our daily walk as activist counselors. Counselors regularly encounter situations that must be navigated carefully, and there is no judgment in using any of these three approaches.

As activist counselors, we are hard-wired to serve. But we cannot continue to serve well unless we are diligent in practicing self-care. In this context, self-care does not mean going to the local spa (although we all need that kind of treatment every once in a while). Self-care means filling our cups back up when we are feeling low. Here are some strategies that we have found helpful in recharging our activist selves.

1) Reflect often: We must ask ourselves, why do we do what we do? Reflection is a key component to self-actualization and bringing meaning to our work. Through reflection, we can be in a constant state of improvement. We become more aware, become more open-minded, more readily recognize our own biases and work toward personal growth and change. Reflection enables counselors to grow in both empathy and connection to others.

2) Remain informed: Activist counselors must stay informed of real stories and real facts so they can remain rooted in the truths of people’s experiences rather than getting caught up in the media spin. Counselors must also stay up-to-date with evolving issues as they become more complex. It is imperative for counselors to see events from all angles and to seek out the voices that have been silenced.

3) Give voice to the voiceless: That brings us to using our power for good. As counselors, we hold a position of authority with the clients and students we serve. In addition, our education provides us with privilege that can be used to give voice to those who have been silenced, including individuals who are struggling to enjoy basic freedoms in this country. Our voices are needed. Our voices should be heard.

As counselors, we are always to remember beneficence — to do good and to promote the well-being of others. This is our strength in the counseling relationship. As activist counselors, we must also recognize when rest is needed and when we need to ask for help. Remember that we advocate together to eradicate the systemic oppression that impacts our clients and our students — and even us — every day.

Together, we are change agents. The foundation of what we do and why we do it can be summed up in a quote from Mohandas Gandhi: “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”

 

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Shekila Melchior is an assistant professor and program coordinator of school counseling at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Contact her at shekila-melchior@utc.edu.

Dannette Gomez Beane is the director of recruitment and operations of undergraduate admissions at Virginia Tech. She adjunct teaches for the counselor education programs at Virginia Tech and Buena Vista University. Contact her at gomezds@vt.edu.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

Counseling Today reviews unsolicited articles written by American Counseling Association members. To access writing guidelines and tips for having an article accepted for publication, go to ct.counseling.org/feedback.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Applying the MCC in a divisive sociopolitical climate

By Patricia Arredondo and Rebecca L. Toporek May 9, 2018

We are living through a historic era that many people describe as divisive, polarizing and disheartening. The world of social media never sleeps, and we are bombarded with images of pain and strife. The visible presence of neo-Nazi groups marching, the increase in arrests and deportations of immigrants from sanctuary sites, the killing of unarmed Black boys and men, the senseless deaths from domestic terrorism in Las Vegas and Orlando, the increased incidence of school shootings and the devastation of natural disasters in Houston, Florida and Puerto Rico have led many of our students and clients to wonder aloud: What is going on? Will access to guns continue to bring violence into our schools? Will North Korea bomb the United States? Will we have a new civil war in our country? Will our access to health care be compromised because of tax breaks to wealthy corporations? No counselor is immune to this sociopolitical climate of tension and uncertainty.

Though not always verbalized, these questions are on the minds of many individuals, creating both cognitive and emotional dissonance, much as similar events did 25-30 years ago. In 1991, we witnessed the brutal beating of Rodney King, a Black man, by Los Angeles police officers. In 1989, the Berlin Wall was opened and eventually taken down. Also during this time period, following the CIA’s involvement in Central America, refugees who had been forced to flee from El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras were denied asylum in the United States. Today we witness the disruption of families through deportation and the incarceration of children, separated from their parents and often left to languish indefinitely.

Today, three essential living documents continue to call the counseling profession to action. The Multicultural Counseling Competencies (MCC, 1992), the operationalization of those competencies (1996) and the Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Competencies (MSJCC, 2015) help counselors, educators and supervisors navigate our tumultuous times and provide guidance for ethical and effective practice — clinical, educational and advocacy. These guides prove useful and applicable for contemporary challenges.

The MCC, developed by Derald Wing Sue, Patricia Arredondo (one of the authors of this article) and Roderick J. McDavis, were the impetus for change in the counseling profession and continue to hold relevance in today’s national discourse. Then and now, we see:

a) Increasing racial and ethnic diversification of the country, with the U.S. becoming a majority/ethnic minority country

b) Legislation being promoted to oppress persons of color, people with disabilities, Indigenous peoples, immigrants, LGBTQ individuals and other underrepresented groups

c) The pervasiveness of White supremacy and White privilege

d) Eurocentric models in counselor training that ignore intersecting identities and the sociopolitical context that introduces barriers and oppression

e) Ethical issues resulting from the failure to consider cultural differences and variabilities, particularly in practice and supervision

In this article, our intention is to call attention to stressors in U.S. society and to discuss how the MCC can continue to be catalysts for inclusion and social justice advocacy.

The MCC framework

During the past 25 years, the needle has not moved with respect to the composition of counselors-in-training and counseling faculty. We are still a predominantly White profession, although our clients are increasingly diverse and with intersecting identities.

Now more than ever, the MCC and the Dimensions of Personal Identity (DPI) model provide guidance for understanding ourselves and our clients through an examination of cultural worldviews in a sociopolitical environment. They invite us to examine privileges and unconscious biases that may be detrimental to teaching and counseling. They also point out the harm of neglecting the environmental conditions that benefit or adversely affect individuals.

The DPI model presents an intersectional approach to identity and includes numerous dimensions, such as predetermined characteristics that serve as a profile (e.g., age, ethnicity); our experiences and opportunities (e.g., educational background, income); and a contextual dimension that shapes our experience (e.g., historical and sociopolitical events). This model communicates several premises:

a) We are all multicultural individuals.

b) We all possess a personal, political and historical culture and biases.

c) We are affected by sociocultural, political, environmental and historical events.

d) Multiculturalism also intersects with multiple factors of individual diversity.

The MCC and subsequent MSJCC are about change, requiring counseling professionals and graduate students alike to reflect on their own lenses and those of their clients/students, the role of power and privilege, and how the MCC can support respectful responses and engagement in times of political divisiveness. National incidents during the past few years remind us of the need to know facts, engage in perspective-taking and examine our personal beliefs and feelings to engage in ethical and effective counseling.

Current realities

When former President Barack Obama was elected, many people and organizations stated that we were moving into a post-racial era. However, even following his election, assertions about the president’s birthplace persisted (including allegations perpetuated by our current president, Donald Trump). This action propagated doubts about Obama’s legitimacy and arguably subjected him to more scrutiny than previous presidents faced.

Following Obama’s 2008 election, there was an astounding increase in hate groups in the country, accompanied by a rise in hate crimes. For example, hate crimes against Muslim Americans rose 67 percent in 2015. During the national election campaign season and subsequent election of Donald Trump in 2016, the number of hate crimes increased again dramatically. In October 2017, 25.9 percent more hate crimes were reported than in October 2015. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, there are now 954 hate groups operating in the United States. In addition, 623 “patriot” organizations were classified as active, extreme anti-government groups in 2016.

The White nationalist march that sparked violent conflict and led to the death of one counterprotester this past August in Charlottesville, Virginia, provides a high-profile example of the increased visibility of hate groups. This event is a vivid reminder that hate thrives in many sectors of our society, including among neighbors, friends and family. Trump’s comment that there was fault on both sides minimized the killing of Heather Heyer, a peaceful demonstrator.

Another example of great divisiveness and misunderstanding from 2016 involved the controversy surrounding athletes “taking a knee” during the playing of the national anthem before NFL games. Colin Kaepernick, then a quarterback for the San Francisco 49ers, initiated this action to call attention to racial biases among police forces, the killing of young Black men and the subsequent acquittal of White police officers. As the movement grew, so did the hostility verbalized by the current presidential administration and a segment of the public. A failure to dialogue, inflammatory assertions and the blaming of athletes only exacerbated a national divide. We wonder why these peaceful protests could not be tolerated. Framing this as a “patriotism” issue and a Black-White divide rather than a human-rights and freedom-of-speech issue further polarized the public. As counselors, we may see clients with a range of opinions and perspectives on this and other issues, and we too have to examine our beliefs on these divisive issues.

The #MeToo movement cannot be overlooked in this discourse. Thankfully, the voices of privileged women brought this center stage, yet it was Tarana Burke, an African American woman, who coined the term and brought issues of oppression among working-class women in the South to light. Women across the life span, but particularly girls, women of color, older adult women and economically disadvantaged women, continue to be victimized in a heteropatriarchal society. Although the majority of counseling professionals and counselors-in-training are women, we must be intentional about addressing sexism in the classroom, therapy room and institutions in which we work. We are privileged, but many of our students and clients may not know how to negotiate spaces of harassment and sexual assault.

There is no time for complacency if we, as counselors, consider ourselves to be ethical and multicultural and social justice advocates. The impact of a dissonant national climate and visible expressions of hate on clients and communities must inform our work.

Counselors possess critical competencies to facilitate and support clients, peers and family members who require advocacy. To this end, we must use critical thinking, seek accurate information and develop understanding of sociopolitical contexts. Collective responses and calls to action for justice have been framed politically within the context of a racialized history. For example, assertions that the Black Lives Matter movement is parallel to White supremacy groups misconstrue the purpose of the organization. Black Lives Matter is a collective response of peaceful marches that began in response to the killings of Trayvon Martin and other young Black men, whereas, White supremacy is a movement based on the belief that the White “race” is superior. These are very different premises and have very different purposes.

The “March for Our Lives” and “March Across America” were spearheaded by high school students in response to deadly school shootings. These young people raised their voices to challenge legislators and school officials to make schools safe. These marches were visible nationally and brought the issue of gun control to the forefront. School counselors and educators nationally supported the power of these voices. Within the framework of the MCC, we can critically understand the racialized context in which these voices are heard. In the process, many have recognized that youth of color have been raising the issue for some time.

Legislation and policy affecting human rights

There are a number of examples of policy and legislation that endanger human rights and, thus, the well-being of clients and communities.

The website I Am an Immigrant (iamanimmigrant.com) posts empowering messages detailing personal stories of perseverance and success from immigrants from various countries. Contrast this with scenes of individuals being taken from their homes by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement — families torn apart, children witnessing their parents being handcuffed, individuals and communities living with new fears and trauma. Hate-based trauma is a critical clinical issue and one that is directly connected to current sociopolitical events and policies.

The MCC guide us to examine our attitudes about immigrants, documented and undocumented alike. If we subscribe to, or neglect to refute, statements that all Latino men are “rapists and drug dealers,” as stated by the president, or that immigrants in low-paying jobs are taking opportunities away from American citizens, then counseling and teaching relationships will be harmed. We must become knowledgeable about the facts concerning immigrants’ historical and current contributions to U.S. society and recognize the shadow of illegitimacy that is cast with harmful rhetoric.

Legislation proposing to ban transgender individuals from the military, limit the access of transgender persons to school bathrooms and remove protections for LGBTQ individuals in the workplace have also reemerged as contentious human-rights issues. These issues should encourage us as counselors to take a moment for self-examination to ensure that we understand our responsibilities. The MCC acknowledge that we all have biases and assumptions based on personal values, but in our professional role, we are expected to uphold the ACA Code of Ethics, including the requirement to pursue nondiscrimination.

With the spate of 2017 hurricanes — including Harvey, Irma and Maria — we witnessed people’s resilience despite the extensive loss of homes, lives and livelihood. What was equally striking was the differential response of federal agencies to the victims of Hurricane Maria on the island of Puerto Rico. The damages were anticipated, but the slow engagement by the U.S. government was inadequate on many accounts. Many months later, a lack of safe drinking water, electricity to fuel hospital generators and internet access to check on loved ones are among the persistent examples of neglect. There were also many blame-the-victim taunts by the U.S. president. These were noted by many Puerto Ricans, human-rights advocates and others as indications of double standards, raising questions about the role of biases in federal response to disasters.

As counselors informed by the MCC, we must ask ourselves about this differential treatment of U.S. citizens and the lack of basic historical knowledge concerning Puerto Ricans as U.S. citizens. This example of marginalization cannot be overlooked.

Awareness and guidance from the MCC, MSJCC

In addition to providing guidance regarding multicultural counseling interactions, the MCC, its operationalizing document and the MSJCC give guidance that is useful in contextualizing and responding to the impact of these traumatic and life-ending events — for clients, for communities and for counselors themselves. We will provide just a few examples but encourage readers to invest in a more thorough examination.

One overarching dimension, implicit in the MCC and explicit in the MSJCC, is that of privilege and marginalization. This dimension calls on counselors to examine their position and power within institutions and society in relation to clients. For example, the current U.S. presidential administration and economic power structures reflect White, Christian, male, heterosexual norms, and numerous legislative and judicial decisions are reinforcing values associated with beliefs about the superiority of those identities. The position of the counselor in relation to those decisions and identities is relevant in terms of beliefs and socialization, as well as what the counselor might represent to the client. Are we seen as trustworthy or “handmaidens of the status quo” (Sue et al, 1992).

In any constellation of the counseling relationship (i.e., whether the counselor is of a similar background to the power brokers and the client is similar to communities being targeted for oppression, whether those roles are switched or whether the counselor and the client are of similar identities), the DPI model highlights the ways in which these identities may be relevant. The dimension of privilege and marginalization should be considered in each of the three arenas of MCC: counselor awareness of own values and biases, client worldview, and culturally appropriate interventions and advocacy.

Counselor awareness of own cultural values and biases: As a critical component of multicultural counseling, current political, social and global events present opportunities for examining counselors’ perspectives and how those perspectives contribute to the counseling environment. These beliefs may support clients experiencing marginalization or they may interfere with best practices and the amelioration of systemic oppression.

Differences based on political or economic views, unexamined racial bias, beliefs about immigration or other stimuli may promote assumptions about clients, their choices and the epistemology of their concerns. Furthermore, divisiveness in communities, the media and families can contribute to conflict that is not easily resolved. There are some who see student advocacy for school safety as opposite to Second Amendment rights. These are intrinsically related issues.

One example of an observable indicator of cultural self-awareness (as quoted from the 1996 MCC operationalization document): “Can identify specific social and cultural factors and events in their history that influence their view and use of social belonging, interpretations of behavior, motivation, problem-solving and decision methods, thoughts and behaviors (including subconscious) in relation to authority and other institutions and can contrast these with the perspectives of others.” In the current political climate, in which legislation limits the rights of entire segments of the population (e.g., members of the LGBTQ community, women, Muslims, immigrants, refugees), this statement suggests the importance of counselors examining their own history in relationship to authority, institutions and beliefs.

Counselor awareness of client worldview: Many current events require us to reflect in terms of the sociopolitical climate and biases. Power differentials between clients and counselors are always present. Differences in the counseling dyad based on a client’s underrepresented identity status require the counselor to attend even more intently.

For example, in counseling, college students who were protected under the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program may now be preoccupied with concerns about remaining in the U.S., the possible deportation of loved ones and harassment by others who consider them to be undocumented immigrants. Trust issues may also inhibit these clients from fully disclosing out of fear that the counselor might break confidentiality because of the student’s status.

Understanding clients’ worldviews includes understanding the sociopolitical reality in which they live, their fears, the reality of the bias they may face and the impact of immigration policies and practices on their families and communities. Regardless of immigration status, or beliefs about immigration, when the current presidential administration makes broad statements disparaging immigrants and connecting that to cultural identity markers such as ethnicity, it affects entire communities. In the example involving DACA, it is important to understand the policies, rights and resources available to students and to understand the climate of their peers and institutions.

Moving beyond DACA, since the 2016 presidential election, expressions of hate against immigrants, Muslims, Black students and others have increased. Multicultural practice requires an understanding of that climate and how it affects clients. As counselor educators, it is our responsibility to check in with our students to support and hear them out. This is a small gesture of advocacy.

Culturally appropriate intervention strategies: Culturally appropriate counseling interventions include work with clients and on behalf of clients. The MCC advise counselors to consider the cultural contexts of clients and counseling approaches that are congruent for clients’ developmental level, familial and cultural beliefs, and acculturation. Understanding the client’s cultural and sociopolitical context should help determine culturally appropriate interventions and support systems. In the MSJCC, the Advocacy Competencies are also integrated as interventions. The ACA Advocacy Competencies provide valuable guidance for advocating with clients and on behalf of clients to address many of the difficult issues affecting their well-being.

In the DACA example, counselors could advocate through individual interventions, organizational interventions and policy or legislative actions. Individually, counselors could provide students with campus resources to assist with documents that need to be submitted and with identifying DACA-informed immigration attorneys.
DACA clients may also be facing hostility either from fellow students or, in some cases, from staff or faculty. Counselors, as charged by the ACA Code of Ethics, are responsible for bringing discrimination to the attention of their employers and for acting in the best interests of clients. This is an example of an intersection between advocacy and ethical imperatives and would represent organization-level advocacy.

 

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Patricia Arredondo is president of the Arredondo Advisory Group and faculty fellow at Fielding Graduate University. She has published extensively on multicultural competencies and guidelines, Latinx mental health and immigrant identity challenges. She is a past president of the American Counseling Association. Contact her at parredondo@arredondoadvisorygroup.com.

Rebecca L. Toporek is a professor in the Department of Counseling at San Francisco State University. She has written extensively on multicultural counseling, social justice, engaged empowerment of communities and advocacy. Her counseling specialties are focused
on career and college counseling.

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

Counseling Today reviews unsolicited articles written by American Counseling Association members. To access writing guidelines and tips for having an article accepted for publication, go
to ct.counseling.org/feedback.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Cole delivers message of care and empowerment in Saturday keynote

By Jonathan Rollins April 28, 2018

Johnnetta Betsch Cole couldn’t help but chuckling at the audacity (or, as she phrased it, the “chutzpah”) of the keynote message she was about to deliver to the thousands of counselors congregated Saturday morning at the ACA 2018 Conference & Expo in Atlanta.

With charismatic presence — and a knowing sense of humor — Cole announced to the assembled crowd, “I’m going to give some good counsel to a bunch of counselors.”

Cole followed up by saying that she wasn’t bringing new words of wisdom. Rather, she said, “You’re going to have affirmed what you already know but what you may not be acting on.”

Johnnetta Betsch Cole gives the keynote address at the ACA 2018 Conference & Expo in Atlanta on April 28. (Images by Paul Sakuma Photography)

An educator, anthropologist and humanitarian, Cole was the first African-American woman to serve as president of Spelman College and later served as president of Bennett College. Spelman, in Atlanta, and Bennett, in Greensboro, North Carolina, are two historically black colleges that are dedicated exclusively to educating black women. Cole was also the director of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African Art. In introducing her to conference attendees, ACA President Gerard Lawson noted that Cole “has tangled with inequality in all its forms.”

Cole opened by welcoming the “sisters, brothers and siblings all” in the audience. In a nod to her training as an anthropologist, Cole said that she was purposely using “kinship terms” in her greeting. “I know that kinship is about much more than blood,” she said, explaining that it is really about how people are connected by their shared values and beliefs. Among the values she knows that counselors share, she said, is the belief that “every child deserves the right to soar to the heights of their possibilities” and the worth of the extraordinary diversity among all human beings.

Cole then proceeded to remind the counselors in the room of some truths they already know but may need to rededicate themselves to in their practice.

First, Cole said, “It is immensely important for you to truly know the folks you are working with — their struggles, their lives and their culture. … You cannot be an effective counselor unless you genuinely find a way to walk in their moccasins or roll in their wheelchair” or understand what it is like to be someone who is transitioning genders.

Second, she said, “To serve as an effective and compassionate counselor to others, you first need to really know yourselves.” This involves a significant amount of soul searching and engaging in personal therapy, Cole acknowledged, but it also requires “understanding and owning your unconscious biases.”

Every single human being possesses these unconscious biases, Cole said, and they affect how we view and evaluate others and ourselves. “We’ve got to be aware of our unconscious biases. Why?” asked Cole. “So we can mitigate against them.”

Third, as counselors work with students and clients from marginalized groups in society, Cole said, it is extremely important to help these individuals “acknowledge, own and execute their power … to become champions for themselves and for their community, their nation and the world.”

Cole recalled a middle school teacher who helped her to realize and claim this power in her own life. Cole was attending a private school where almost all of the teachers were white, including this particular Latin teacher, Miss Morris, whom Cole remembers as having “tightly permed hair with too much blue rinse in it.”

At this particular age, Cole said, she was beginning to “feel my power,” and she decided to direct it against Latin itself, organizing “her girls” to disrupt the beginning of class with a rhyme about how the rigors of Latin was killing them. After two days of this, Miss Morris stopped the girls and told them that they weren’t there to learn Latin. Using the language of the day, she told them, “You’re in this class to learn that, as negro girls, you can learn anything.”

“That is a message that we should give to every child,” Cole said.

That message should also stir up something in us to claim and use our own power to effect change in our own lives and communities, Cole said, adding that there is no shortage of issues in our society needing nonviolent action on the part of people.

When encouraging people to tap into their power, Cole likes to reference an African proverb: “If you think you’re too small to make a difference in the world, you’ve never spent the night in a closed room with a mosquito.”

In closing, Cole gave the counselors one last reminder: “Each of you is in the business of teaching your clients and students how to take better care of themselves. But in addition, dear counselors, you’ve got to take good care of yourselves.”

Cole then asked for the house lights in the ballroom to be brought up and requested each of the counselors who were able to stand. She told them to get in a comfortable stance, to bring their right arm across their body and then their left – and then to give themselves a big hug.

“I’m asking you to do better at loving and empowering yourselves,” Cole said to the attendees. She then asked them to take that message of care and empowerment to their students and clients so that they, in turn, could work to improve their communities, put a message of love and respect into action, and pursue social justice throughout society.

Cole may have been preaching to the choir, but her message unquestionably rang clear and true.

 

 

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Jonathan Rollins is the editor-in-chief of Counseling Today. Contact him at jrollins@counseling.org.

 

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The ACA 2018 Conference & Expo in Atlanta began with an ACA Governing Council meeting mid-week; festivities stretch through the weekend.

Find out more, including information on live streaming, at counseling.org/conference

 

See more photos from conference on the ACA Flickr: bit.ly/1MOAysM

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Follow Counseling Today on Twitter @ACA_CTonline and on Facebook at facebook.com/CounselingToday.

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

‘Teach people that they have power’

By Bethany Bray April 27, 2018

Dolores Huerta can be described in many ways: labor organizer, feminist, civil rights pioneer, social justice icon, impassioned speaker and lifelong advocate for the oppressed.

On Friday, Huerta delivered a stirring keynote address to open the ACA 2018 Conference & Expo that proved the 88 year-old has lost none of her spark and drive to make change for the better.

Dolores Huerta delivers the opening keynote at the ACA 2018 Conference & Expo in Atlanta on April 27. (Images by Paul Sakuma Photography)

“Everything that is wrong in the United States of America ends up on your desk,” Huerta said. “Counselors, you need to be multiplied by 1,000 times because you are so needed.”

Helping professionals have a role to play in the work to dismantle oppression and create a fair and just society, Huerta said. “It’s a long road. It’s not a quick fix but if we work together we can make it happen.”

Huerta’s morning keynote kicked off the American Counseling Association’s 66th annual conference in Atlanta. Thousands of professional counselors have gathered for four days of education sessions, trainings, meetings and social events at the Georgia World Congress Center.

Huerta, who originated the “Sí, se puede” (“Yes, we can”) rallying cry,

worked as a schoolteacher in the 1950s but soon felt the pull to organize farm workers — the children of whom she had seen arrive in her classroom hungry. In 1962, Huerta and César Chávez founded a labor union that would become the United Farm Workers’ Union; She served as union vice president until 1999. A native of New Mexico and California, Huerta received the Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights Award in 1998 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012.

She continues to travel throughout the U.S. for speaking engagements to advocate for social justice as president of the Dolores Huerta Foundation, a California-based nonprofit organization focused on advocacy, grassroots organizing and leadership development.

On Friday, Huerta thanked counselors for the important work they do — work that has a part to play in combating discrimination and inequality in the U.S.

There’s a saying in the labor movement: Every minute is an organizing moment, Huerta said. For counselors, “We can also say every moment is a healing moment that you can carry with you.”

She encouraged counselors, and in turn, their clients, to get involved in local civic life. Personal problems can diminish when you focus on the bigger picture and helping others, she noted.

“Looking around and seeing all the power in this room, we know it is enough to make a difference,” Huerta said. “You have worked so hard in our communities and schools. Now we’re asking you to do even more. We’re asking you to help us heal our country.”

If there’s a protest or picket line in your local area, join in, Huerta urged. Advocate for free college tuition, early child healthcare, equality in education, prison reform and other issues. Thinking ahead to the 2018 midterm elections, Huerta called on counselors to help elect representatives to Congress who are “partners in justice” and willing to change policy.

“We’re going to be counting on you to help us with this work, and we have so much work to do. Whether you’re a Democrat or a Republican, our democracy won’t work unless you get involved,” Huerta said. “[Change] is not going to happen unless we fight for the resources we need.”

She also called for a greater focus on diversity. America is a nation of immigrants, enriched by our differences, Huerta said.

“If you [counselors] are in an agency or school with little diversity, let’s figure out how to make that happen. The more diversity we can fill our lives with, the richer our lives will be,” she said.

This begins with our education system, and changing the content of what we teach to include the contributions of people of color and other repressed groups, Huerta said. Otherwise, “our children of color will never feel respected, and always feel like they never belong.”

There is only one human race: Homo sapiens, which originated in Africa. “It’s important that we always affirm the fact that we are Africans of different shades and colors,” Huerta said with a smile.

Drawing from her experience in labor organizing, Huerta closed with a sentiment that often rings true in professional counseling, as well: The power for change lies within.

“Teach people that they have the power,” Huerta urged. “You already have the power, you have everything you need. We just need to come together and work to make change. If we do not make the change, volunteer and do the work to make change, nothing will happen. We cannot expect that someone will come and do it for us. We have to do the work.”

 

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The ACA 2018 Conference & Expo in Atlanta began with an ACA Governing Council meeting mid-week; festivities stretch through the weekend. Saturday’s keynote will feature anthropologist, educator, author and humanitarian Johnnetta Betsch Cole, director emerita of the Smithsonian Museum of African Art.

Find out more, including information on live streaming select conference sessions and Cole’s keynote, at counseling.org/conference

 

See more photos from conference on the ACA Flickr: bit.ly/1MOAysM

Dolores Huerta shakes the hand of ACA President Gerard Lawson as she takes the stage for the opening keynote at the ACA 2018 Conference & Expo in Atlanta on April 27.

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Find out more about the Dolores Huerta Foundation at doloreshuerta.org

 

Huerta is profiled in the documentary “Dolores,” which aired recently on PBS stations. Find out more at pbs.org/independentlens/films/dolores-huerta/

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.