Tag Archives: youth

Promoting LGBTQ students’ well-being in schools

By Roberto L. Abreu, Adriana G. McEachern, Jennifer Geddes Hall and Maureen C. Kenny October 2, 2018

Research shows that LGBTQ youth are disproportionately bullied (whether in person or via cyberbullying), verbally and physically harassed, and assaulted in schools by peers and staff. Such hostility has been correlated to lower school performance and psychological and emotional distress, including suicidal ideation and attempt, depression and anxiety.

In the 2015 GLSEN (formerly Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network) National School Climate Survey, LGB students reported higher levels of verbal, physical and sexual violence and bullying than did their heterosexual counterparts. Specifically, 98.1 percent of LGB students heard the word “gay” used in a derogatory manner, 85.2 percent reported verbal harassment, and 34.7 percent reported being physically harassed in the past year. In addition, a 2017 meta-analysis (conducted by co-authors Roberto L. Abreu and Maureen C. Kenny) of 27 empirical studies on the effects of cyberbullying on LGBTQ youth revealed that compared with their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts, these students are disproportionately harassed online and through other technology-based means. Such harassment has been correlated to a range of behavioral and emotional difficulties, including suicidal ideation (with some studies suggesting rates as high as 40 percent among LGBTQ youth) and suicide attempts (with rates as high as 30 percent).

Many LGBTQ students identify school counselors as the one school staff member to whom they are most likely to disclose concerns related to their sexual and gender identity. Given this reality, school counselors are uniquely positioned to address myths about LGBTQ youth, to advocate for these students and to effect change.

Dispelling myths

Let’s begin by examining five myths that can have an impact on the identity, safety and well-being of LGBTQ youth. We’ll also look at specific strategies and interventions that counselors can use to address these myths and increase the safety of LGBTQ students.

Myth #1: Parents must be informed of their child’s sexual and gender identity. A 10th-grader discloses to her high school counselor that she identifies as a lesbian. Most of her friends know, but she has yet to tell her parents. She fears their reaction because she has heard them make derogatory remarks toward LGBTQ individuals in the past. Must the school counselor inform the student’s parents?

The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model (2012) stresses the importance of parent and family involvement and its influence on the well-being of students. Although parent engagement is critical when working with LGBTQ youth, school counselors should consider several factors before disclosing to parents a student’s sexual or gender identity. Many LGBTQ students believe they lack parental support, and they may fear rejection, abuse and an unsafe home environment if their parents discover their sexual or gender identity.

Therefore, the counselor in this scenario should first discuss with the student her feelings about informing her parents and assess how they may react to this information. It would be important for the counselor to prepare the student for potential negative parental responses. Role-playing the conversation could be helpful for the student. It would be best to have the minor client make the disclosure to her parents with the counselor present to provide support. It is also important to have a plan in place to provide the client with a safe place to stay should the parents totally reject her and need time to adjust to the situation.

In certain instances, school counselors may have to break confidentiality. For example, what if the student also disclosed to the counselor that she was distraught over the situation and was having suicidal thoughts and feelings of hopelessness because she feared that her parents would never understand or accept her sexual and gender identity? In that situation, there would be potential harm and danger to the minor client. Therefore, the counselor would need to conduct a thorough suicide assessment, then inform the client of the legal and ethical reasons that confidentiality must be breached.

It is important for counselors to check their schools’ policies and procedures in relation to dealing with crisis situations such as suicide. School counselors can work with parents individually or in groups to foster awareness and acceptance of LGBTQ students and to promote understanding of their needs and the challenges these students face every day.

Myth #2: Gender-neutral facilities are a threat to school safety. A school district policy does not allow transgender students to use the restroom that corresponds to their gender identity. A transgender student has brought this to the attention of the school counselor, inquiring about what to do. The student says he often goes the entire school day without going to the restroom.

School counselors should use their role as staff and educators to speak to the school administration about this issue. In talking to school administrators, counselors can present research related to transgender students experiencing a lack of safety in schools and make the argument that forcing these students to use a bathroom that does not align with their gender identity only contributes to this presenting concern.

Some states have passed laws precluding gender-neutral facilities, imposing on the rights of transgender individuals to use the restroom that corresponds to their gender identity rather than their sex at birth. Some of these laws have been incorporated into school policy. The rationale given for these laws has been to protect public privacy and safety. However, there is no research evidence to support this claim.

In 2015, Media Matters for America conducted a survey of 17 school districts in 12 states encompassing approximately 600,000 students. The survey asked about cases of harassment or inappropriate behavior after transgender-inclusive policies had been passed in those districts. The survey results concluded that no incidents of sexual harassment or inappropriate behavior had been reported in those schools, debunking the myth that gender-neutral facilities are a threat to school safety.

Counselors, as social justice agents, must involve themselves in policy. This can be done at school meetings, where counselors can advocate for gender-neutral policies in schools and school districts. Counselors can inform school administrators of their interest in participating in these meetings and being involved in the decision-making process. They can volunteer to conduct information sessions for meeting participants about the academic, personal and career needs of LGBTQ youth. Counselors should actively seek to advocate for transgender youth so that these students can use the bathroom that best aligns with their gender.

Myth #3: School policies and laws protect all students. School policies and laws have focused mainly on reducing bullying but not necessarily on protecting LGBTQ youth and keeping them safe. The 2015 GLSEN report that investigated anti-bullying policies in the nation’s school districts revealed that out of the 13,181 school districts surveyed, 70 percent had anti-bullying policies. However, only 20 percent of these school districts had LGB-inclusive policies, and only 10 percent had LGBT-inclusive anti-bullying policies.

Although anti-bullying policies may be in place, LGBTQ students continue to report higher incidents of bullying and harassment than do other students. Often, these policies are not widely distributed to students and staff, and although most students and staff may be aware of district anti-bullying policies, they are not necessarily aware of LGBT-inclusive anti-bullying policies. 

Furthermore, policies and laws are often influenced by politics and societal opinions. Laws referred to as “no promo homo” involve efforts to prevent national LGBT education, mandate that administrators take a neutral stance on gender identity and prohibit providing specific services to these students. Although seven states (Alabama, Arizona, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas) had “no promo homo” laws as of January 2018, many states are working to develop LGBT-inclusive laws and policies that do not discriminate against these youth. For example, many states have developed LGBT anti-discrimination laws. These laws also permit transgender students to participate in sports congruent with their gender identity.

School counselors need to be proactive and work with school administrators to develop LGBT-inclusive policies. Counselors can assist in disseminating and discussing these policies regularly with students, parents and staff. Counselors should educate school administrators on bullying and “no promo homo” laws so they will better understand the detrimental effects of systemic oppression on LGBT youth.

In addition, school counselors should empower LGBTQ students to share with school staff their experiences with bullying and harassment within the school. This will open the door for school personnel to make a personal connection with these students and will help them learn more about the physical and mental health consequences of LGBTQ bullying and lack of representation.

Myth #4: LGBTQ students are safe around all school personnel. Many LGBTQ students do not feel safe at school — around either other students or school personnel. The GLSEN survey from 2015 reported that more than 50 percent of LGBTQ students heard homophobic comments from teachers and school staff. Many of these students believed that reporting harassment or assaults to school personnel would worsen the situation and that no action would be taken. Among those who did disclose bullying, harassment or assault to school staff, 63.5 percent indicated that their reports were ignored. In addition, when these incidents were reported, LGBTQ students faced harsher discipline than did their heterosexual and cisgender peers and were often blamed for the incidents (see research from Shannon Snapp, Jennifer Hoenig, Amanda Fields and Stephen Russell). This lack of support from school personnel places LGBTQ students at greater risk of being victimized.

In 2017, students in California’s San Luis Obispo High School published an edition of the student paper, Expressions, featuring LGBTQ issues. In response, a special education teacher at the school wrote a letter quoting the Bible and stating that those committing homosexual acts “deserve to die.” The school administration chose not to discipline the teacher for the action, stating that teachers as well as students “do not shed their First Amendment rights” at school. Although the teacher resigned soon after the incident, his statement remains a testament to the harassment and discrimination leveled against some LGBTQ students by school personnel.

School counselors need to advocate for and support LGBTQ students in the face of such victimization. Providing training to all students, parents and school staff is critical to reducing incidents of bullying and harassment and increasing awareness and sensitivity to the issues LGBTQ students confront in schools. A middle school in South Florida developed a monthlong program that focused on bullying prevention, including sexual and gender identity sensitivity training at various levels. At the high school level, counselors are forming LGBTQ support groups to provide outlets for these students to discuss specific issues and concerns. These groups provide one way to let these students know that they are valued and that their voices are important.

Myth #5: Sex education is inclusive of all students. Sex education that is LGBTQ inclusive is very limited or nonexistent in our nation’s schools. Often, this lack of inclusion is due to discomfort and lack of knowledge about LGBTQ sexuality on the part of school personnel, students and parents. Many teachers do not feel competent to teach on the topic.

Traditionally, sex education in U.S. schools centered on an abstinence-only curriculum. This ideology changed somewhat in the 1980s because of the AIDS epidemic, the increase in sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancy. The curriculum during this time focused on prevention and contraception, but no content was included on LGBTQ sexuality. In the 1990s, there was an effort to develop national guidelines for comprehensive sex education by the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States, a task force composed of educators and health professionals. However, these guidelines also lacked specific and clear directives on how to address the needs of LGBTQ students in schools.

Health care reform legislation in 2010 provided states with funding to draft comprehensive sex education in schools. One of the programs created from this initiative was the Personal Responsibility Education Program for young adults. Once again, however, this program
failed to offer educational content or policy language that was inclusive of LGBTQ students.

Given this reality, school counselors can take leadership roles in advocating to administrators and teachers on the importance of including educational information and materials about LGBTQ sexuality in the sex education curriculum. Counselors may need to ensure that the programs being used to teach sexuality are inclusive. Counselors can assist health educators by providing appropriate materials (see hrc.org/resources/a-call-to-action-lgbtq-youth-need-inclusive-sex-education for more information on LGBTQ-inclusive sex education). Counselors can also conduct psychoeducational workshops to dispel myths and misconceptions regarding LGBTQ students with all stakeholders, including students, school staff and parents.

 

A call to action

Clearly, the perpetuation of these myths indicates that something more needs to be done to better support LGBTQ students within school systems. School counselors, as outlined by ASCA, have an ethical obligation to support underserved and oppressed populations. Additionally, school counselor training programs emphasize the role of school counselors as agents of change within the school system and professional leaders who must act as allies and advocates for all students.

This role includes:

  • Being aware of the challenges that LGBTQ students face within the school system
  • Designing a developmental, comprehensive school counseling program to support the LGBTQ student population
  • Advocating for policies and practices that address inequities regarding academic, career and social/emotional domains for LGBTQ students 

Therefore, supporting LGBTQ students and promoting social justice initiatives should be done through large-scale, small-scale and individual interventions in an effort to create a positive school climate for everyone.

Readiness assessment

The first step is to conduct a needs and readiness assessment. This assessment should focus on gauging the school’s current climate related to LGBTQ students and the willingness of staff to make needed changes. Assessments should target students, faculty, staff and parents. Their openness toward acceptance and making changes, as well as the amount of education and training they have received related to LGBTQ populations, is important to assess.

Parents and school personnel may be reluctant to support LGBTQ youth in part because they do not feel prepared to respond to the unique needs of these students. School counselors will need to collaborate and discuss concerns with all stakeholders to comprehensively make appropriate systemic changes. These conversations also allow school counselors to gain awareness of current school policies and procedures related to the treatment of LGBTQ students.

Additionally, before changes can begin, school counselors should collect data that may be reflective of disparities and issues that LGBTQ students face within the school. Such data may include behavioral referrals, truancy rates and negative changes in grades and attitudes/behaviors. Behavioral referrals should be more specific and include incidents of verbal and physical harassment that LGBTQ students have endured as well as LGBTQ students who might be “acting out” in class in reaction to bullying or oppressive interactions.

LGBTQ students who are lacking support and involved with negative interactions often are truant, report somatic complaints and disengage from the learning process. It is therefore important that school counselors collect and examine data concerning absenteeism, visits to the school nurse, incidents of skipping class and dropping grades. This data should be saved and used as well during the measurement of formative and summative program success. This information will help inform what needs exist and how the school can best support LGBTQ students in dealing with their struggles.

It is important to note here that when collecting and analyzing data, counselors should look for patterns and then meet with students individually, regardless of their sexual or gender identity. At the time of this meeting, if the student discloses that their struggles are indeed related to their LGBTQ identity (for example, they are being bullied because of their gender expression), then counselors should move forward with interventions while making sure to protect the student’s confidentiality.

Intervention formulation

After school counselors have conducted a thorough assessment of their schools’ climate and needs, they can begin to formulate interventions and adjust policies to better support LGBTQ students. School counselors should include LGBTQ community members on their advisory boards to assist with inclusivity when promoting change and programming. Change and programming should include interventions at the schoolwide, small group and individual levels. 

Schoolwide interventions addressing bullying and diversity have been deemed most effective in promoting a more positive school environment for all students. These interventions should include procedures and programming specific to the LGBTQ population, such as staff training on LGBTQ issues, multicultural awareness and response procedures regarding victimization of LGBTQ students. Schoolwide strategies and policies to address LGBTQ-specific bullying and harassment must also be outlined.

Schools are also encouraged to provide educational workshops for parents that address issues related to sexual and gender identity, ways of talking at home about bullying (with both victims and perpetrators), and ways to discuss diversity and acceptance beyond the school setting. These conversations should include information that is pertinent and specific to LGBTQ students.

As a universal approach, teachers should be encouraged to incorporate LGBTQ-affirming curricula into their existing core areas of focus at the elementary, middle and high school levels as developmentally appropriate. School counselors also need to include examples of LGBTQ populations and the issues they face in classroom guidance lessons and when promoting positive behavior intervention and character education programs at their schools. Positive recognition of LGBTQ students, parents, staff and community members can also help to promote a more accepting environment overall. Additionally, it is beneficial to foster support from those involved in athletics and other extracurricular activities. This includes recruiting the active assistance and endorsement of coaches and athletes regarding LGBTQ students.

In addition to schoolwide interventions, schools can better support LGBTQ students by providing small group and individual services designed specifically for them. Safe zones/diversity rooms can be designated to serve as a resource for LGBTQ student needs or concerns. These spaces should be run by the school counselor or other trained staff and must respect the confidentiality of the students who use them. These spaces can serve as a safe, supportive environment for LGBTQ and other students to discuss issues they are facing. In addition, they can serve as resource rooms stocked with helpful books, flyers and other materials.

School counselors can also facilitate support groups specifically for LGBTQ students, allowing them to openly discuss their experiences, process their thoughts and feelings, and develop coping strategies. Group topics could include local and national resources available for LGBTQ individuals, LGBTQ role models, family relationships, intimate relationships, coming out, personal and professional issues that LGBTQ individuals encounter, and information about higher education institutions that are affirming of LGBTQ individuals.

Support groups for parents of LGBTQ students should also be offered. These groups would address ways for these parents to support their children. The groups would also provide a forum for parents to share their experiences and concerns with each other and with the school. In addition, many schools now offer a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA), a student-led organization with a faculty adviser that typically meets to learn about issues that LGBTQ students are facing. GSA is meant to be a group that promotes acceptance, social justice and advocacy. 

School counselors also make themselves available to all students for individual counseling. In many cases, they may be the only mental health professional that students have easy access to for support. It is therefore imperative that school counselors demonstrate cultural competency and provide a safe, affirming environment that includes acceptance and respect for all students.

School counselors need to be aware that LGBTQ students may not present with problems related to their sexuality or gender identity. School counselors also need to consider other contextual factors such as family dynamics when counseling LGBTQ students. In addition to providing leadership toward systemic change, counselors need to have an understanding of issues that specifically affect LGBTQ students on an individual basis. This understanding is achieved through an ongoing process that includes communicating with the local LGBTQ community, participating in continuing education opportunities about LGBTQ students, reading the latest research related to this population and familiarizing themselves with the legal and ethical mandates surrounding LGBTQ students. Most important, school counselors must engage in ongoing self-examination of their own biases, stereotypes and blind spots concerning all students.

The role of school counselors in advocating for LGBTQ students in school is critical. It is school counselors’ professional and ethical responsibility to ensure a safe and harassment-free learning environment for all youth. Connecting with parents and educating them on the continuum of gender and sexual identity can also be an important part of the process. Given counselors’ expertise and skills in supporting diversity and communicating difficult topics, they can play a central role in helping staff, administrators and students create schools that empower LGBTQ youth.

 

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Recommended resources from the authors

  • A Queer Endeavor (aqueerendeavor.org): This site provides educators, school staff, families and students with resources (videos, lesson plans, curriculum development best practices, textbook recommendations) to help support and create an inclusive school environment for sexual minority and gender-expansive students.
  • GLSEN Educator Resources (glsen.org/educate/resources): GLSEN is one of the nation’s largest advocacy groups focused on providing resources that promote the well-being of sexual minority and gender-expansive students in grades K-12. This site provides tools for schoolwide advocacy programming and lesson plans that are LGBTQ inclusive.
  • It’s Pronounced Metrosexual (itspronouncedmetrosexual.com): This site provides online resources (worksheets, videos, articles, books) about privilege and oppression overall, with an emphasis on educating society about topics related to sexual and gender identity. The site serves as a source of information for social justice advocates, researchers and clinicians.
  • American Psychological Association (APA) Safe and Supportive Schools Project (apa.org/pi/lgbt/programs/safe-supportive/default.aspx): APA’s Safe and Supportive Schools Project partners with five professional organizations, including the American Counseling Association and ASCA, to provide training and educational resources. The goal is to help school personnel, leaders of community organizations, parents and students to build positive, supportive and healthy environments that promote acceptance, allowing LGBTQ youth to thrive as their authentic selves.

 

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Knowledge Share articles are developed from sessions presented at American Counseling Association conferences.

Roberto L. Abreu is an assistant professor of counseling psychology at Tennessee State University. His research agenda focuses on the well-being of LGBTQ people of color, with specific attention to parental, school and community acceptance of Latinx LGBTQ youth. Contact him at rabreu@tnstate.edu.

Adriana G. McEachern is a professor emerita, a visiting associate professor and the program director for counselor education in the Department of Leadership and Professional Studies at Florida International University. She is a national certified counselor, certified rehabilitation counselor and licensed mental health counselor in Florida.

Jennifer Geddes Hall is a clinical assistant professor at Clemson University and a licensed professional counselor. She has more than 15 years’ experience working with children and teenagers as a school counselor and clinical mental health counselor in various community settings.

Maureen C. Kenny is a professor of counseling at Florida International University and director of the university’s clinical mental health counseling program.

 

Letters to the editor: ct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

Rate of youth suicide-related hospitalizations has nearly doubled

By Bethany Bray May 31, 2018

Recent research has revealed an alarming development: The number of youth admitted to the hospital for a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation nearly doubled between 2008 and 2015.

The findings, published in the May 2018 issue of the journal Pediatrics, analyzed seven years of billing data for emergency room and inpatient visits at children’s hospitals in the United States.

In 2008, the number of hospital visits for suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts in children and adolescents younger than 18 was 0.66 percent of total hospital visits. In 2015, that percentage nearly doubled to 1.82 percent.

The co-authors of the journal article note that “significant increases” were seen across all age groups, but the highest rise was seen in adolescents, specifically the 15 to 17 and 12 to 14 years-old groupings. The data also pointed to a seasonal curve, with the fewest suicide-related visits in the summer and the most in the spring and fall.

“These findings are deeply troubling and also not surprising,” says Catherine Tucker, president of the Association for Child and Adolescent Counseling, a division of the American Counseling Association.

Tucker points to several factors that were in play during the time of the Pediatrics study (2008 to 2015), including an economic collapse that contributed to stress in families — even forcing some in younger generations to change career or college plans.

Also, “during this same time period, many states drastically cut funding to schools and youth-serving programs,” adds Tucker, a licensed mental health counselor and research director at The Theraplay Institute in Evanston, Illinois. “It is highly likely that the positive resources that were keeping some youth from hitting bottom were removed, making it harder for adults to intervene in a timely manner.”

Changing these statistics will take effort on the part of parents, schools, medical and mental health practitioners alike, says Tucker. Universal screening for anxiety, depression and trauma should be done in schools and doctor’s offices to identify youth who are struggling.

“In order to reverse this trend, schools need to bolster school counseling programs and free school counselors from spending the majority of their time on administrative tasks like testing and scheduling. School counselors see a majority of American children and are in a prime position to do preventive education and identify kids who are struggling before they become so distraught that hospitalization is required,” Tucker says.

“Additionally, parents and caregivers should be encouraged to monitor children’s and teens screen time and limit it to be sure that youth are getting adequate sleep, exercise and in-person interaction,” she continues. “Social media should be carefully monitored in younger children. Parents can reduce late-night use of phones by turning off WiFi after bedtime or not allowing phones or other screens in bedrooms. Counselors in agencies and private practice settings can help by encouraging parents to be alert to behavioral changes, monitoring screen time and helping kids manage their symptoms.”

 

 

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Find out more

 

Read the full article at the journal Pediatrics

 

From NPR: “Hospitals See Growing Numbers Of Kids And Teens At Risk For Suicide

 

The Association for Child and Adolescent Counseling‘s next national conference (July 25/26, 2019 in Austin, Texas) will have a theme of technology use and adolescent mental health

 

This news comes as overall rates of suicide — across all ages — have been on the rise in the United States. In 2016, the country’s rate of suicide reached its highest point since 1986.

 

American Counseling Association members: Log in to access practice briefs on suicide prevention with children, youth and in school settings

 

From the Counseling Today archives:
Raising awareness of suicide risk

’13 Reasons Why’: Strengths, challenges and recommendations

Aspiring to make suicide a relic of the past

 

 

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Bethany Bray is a staff writer and social media coordinator for Counseling Today. Contact her at bbray@counseling.org

 

 

Follow Counseling Today on Twitter @ACA_CTonline and on Facebook at facebook.com/CounselingToday.

 

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

 

 

 

Canine companions

By Laurie Meyers May 4, 2018

Having kids and young adults train rescue dogs isn’t technically animal assisted therapy, but for the kids—and dogs—involved in the Teacher’s Pet program, the result has definitely been therapeutic.

The youth —with the help of professional animal trainers— use positive reward-based training to increase local rescue dogs’ chances of being adopted. In return, working with the dogs helps the students develop patience, empathy, perseverance and hope, says Amy Johnson, the creator and executive director of Teacher’s Pet, a Detroit-area non-profit program.

The idea for the program was born when Johnson, a former public school teacher, was working as a dog training instructor at the Michigan Humane Society. Johnson, an American Counseling Association member, wasn’t sure what the training would look like at first — she simply knew

Images courtesy of Teacher’s Pet. Identifying features of (human) participants have been blurred for confidentiality.

she wanted an intervention that would help both kids and dogs. Johnson contacted every group she could find in the United States and Canada that worked with both youth and dogs to learn more about how their programs worked. Her intent was to work with kids who — like their canine counterparts — were behaviorally challenged and often unwanted. So, not only did Johnson contact school counselors and psychologists for their input, she decided to become a professional counselor herself.

The end result was a program that is 10 weeks long and meets twice a week for two hours. Teacher’s Pet currently works with teens from an alternative high school and three detention facilities and young adults, aged 18-24 at a homeless shelter, says Johnson, a licensed professional counselor. At each facility (except for the homeless shelter), the training takes place on site. Participants from the homeless shelter are brought to an animal shelter to complete the program.

The program’s group facilitators are all professional trainers and they choose only dogs with good temperaments to participate, says Johnson, who is also the special projects coordinator and director of the online animal assisted therapy certificate program at Oakland University in southeast Michigan. Before the participants begin working with the dogs, the facilitators give them some safety training.

“We spend the first day going over body language and stress signals,” Johnson says. “They meet the dogs on day two, after one more hour of dog body language education.”

Other safety measures include limiting the number of dogs — five or six per class of 10 students — and keeping the dogs on long tethers placed 10 feet apart so that they can’t interact with each other, she says. There are also always at least four trainers in the room and the dogs are closely monitored. If a dog gets overexcited, is struggling to get off the tether or barking at another dog, a trainer will remove it from the room, Johnson says.

At the beginning of each session, the lead facilitator goes over the goals for the session, such as teaching the commands “sit,” “stay” or “down,” learning to walk on a leash or not jump for the food bowl. The individual trainers explain how to teach the commands and let the teens or young adults do the actual training as they supervise. The dogs are never forced to participate—if an individual dog is nervous or reluctant, the goal for the day is to establish trust and confidence, she says.

Johnson says that sometimes dogs that come off the streets have specific problems like trembling when people walk by. In that case, the students will sit with the dog until it becomes more comfortable and then start with small steps like going for a brief walk outside.

As participants are teaching the dogs new behavior, often their own behavior changes, she says.

In particular, a lot of the teens and young adults who participate have poor communication skills, Johnson says. For instance, some are so shy that they don’t project their voices and the dogs don’t respond to their commands. The participants have to learn to speak firmly and assertively, and to demonstrate a sense of command by standing up straight. One boy told Johnson that he decided to test the tone of voice and body language he used with the dogs on his peers to see what would happen. Imitating the behavior he used with the dogs gave the boy more confidence and he found it easier to interact with his peers, she says.

Johnson describes another boy who was very angry, had little patience and low impulse control. He had a soft heart and would choose dogs that were struggling, which told Johnson that he was projecting his anger.

“Inside he was like the dogs [scared],” she says. So the trainers paired the boy with a dog that was afraid of men. His job was to make the dog like him, Johnson explains. The boy had to be patient and sit with the dog. As the dog got calmer and more confident, the boy would gently encourage it to move closer and closer. By the end of the program, the dog was joyfully playing with boy.

Johnson says that the program facilitators coordinate with the participants’ counselors when possible, so that if they are struggling with particular problems — such as patience or impulse control — training sessions can include activities that help address those difficulties.

The teens and young adults also learn from each other. The first hour of each session is devoted to training and the second to journaling and “debriefing” — talking as a group about what worked and what didn’t.

Johnson believes that even just the oxytocin release that comes from spending time with the dogs is highly beneficial. The program participants are often deprived of loving human touch and the dogs will lick and hug and make them laugh — reducing their anger and anxiety.

As the program draws to end, saying goodbye isn’t easy, but that in itself can be a lesson learned, Johnson says. The students start to detach from the dogs a little bit, and they’ll talk about how that is a normal part of processing grief and loss, she says. The kids also write letters to potential adopters  touting the dogs’ accomplishments.

When the program is over, the teens and young adults say goodbye to the dogs and learn that they can say goodbye and not have it be the end of the world, says Johnson. The participants also get lots of pictures of themselves with the dogs and a certificate for the wall. Many former students have told Johnson that they keep a picture of themselves and the dog they trained on their dressers.

“I had a youth email me seven years later and ask me for another copy of his certificate because his was in a storage unit that was auctioned off,” she says.

Many graduates want to volunteer with Teacher’s Pet for adoption and other events, Johnson says. The organization also remains a resource for the students — they can get letters of recommendation or basic things like clothes for school or school supplies if needed.

Johnson says that Teacher’s Pet is also currently working with the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) on a longitudinal study to determine if the program produces behavioral changes in the kids, and if so, for how long.

 

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For more information about Teacher’s Pet, visit the website at teacherspetmi.org or email Amy Johnson at amy.johnson@teacherspetmi.org.

Related reading, on therapeutic power of the human-animal bond, from the Counseling Today archives: “The people whisperers

 

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Laurie Meyers is the senior writer for Counseling Today. Contact her at lmeyers@counseling.org.

Letters to the editor:ct@counseling.org

 

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Opinions expressed and statements made in articles appearing on CT Online should not be assumed to represent the opinions of the editors or policies of the American Counseling Association.

 

Parent-child relationship problems: Treatment tools for rectification counseling

By Monika Logan December 8, 2015

As counselors, we come in contact with clients who are angry or heartbroken and oftentimes feel defeated. This sense of pain and loss is frequently realized in the forensic setting in which I work with parents who are desperate to rebuild a parent-child relationship that is severely damaged or estranged. I also work with children who assert that they never want to see or speak with one of their parents again.

SadKidThese are not parents who have abused or neglected their children. They are parents who previously had what would be characterized as a good relationship with their children — until the time of a separation or divorce. I have worked with families in which the conflict has continued for longer than 10 years prior to therapy.

It should be noted that many people in the helping professions refer to this troubled parent-child relationship as “parental alienation.” Through the years, various nomenclatures have been applied in an attempt to give this pathological post-divorce phenomenon a name. But even as we settle on what to call it, we must help these children and the counselors who work with them.

Most counselors working with children or families have witnessed this dynamic to varying degrees. There are ample articles on child alienation, yet many counselors remain conflicted about how to effectively treat these troubled parent-child relationships.

I’ll provide a case example. “Sarah” contacted me and said she had been divorced for 15 years. She told me she had been happily remarried for five years, held a doctorate degree in mathematics and was employed as a full-time professor. But she indicated she had a damaged relationship with her 15-year-old daughter, “Julie.”

In chronicling her story in my office, Sarah vacillated between sobbing and seething with anger. She said that when Julie spent time with her biological father, “Michael,” that he undermined Sarah’s parenting boundaries, spoiled Julie and used every opportunity to denigrate Sarah. Sarah went on to say that she was worried because Julie was disregarding curfews and skipping classes, had been in trouble with the juvenile court system and had recently been caught smoking marijuana.

When I contacted Michael, he presented with a jovial disposition. He stated he was engaged to be married and was employed as a plumber. He initially appeared supportive of his daughter. Although he said he didn’t see any reason that Julie might need therapy, he indicated that he wasn’t opposed.

When Julie’s therapy sessions began, she insisted that she loathed her mother because Sarah was unreasonable. Julie stated that her mother grounded her for “trivial” reasons such as skipping school and smoking marijuana. When discussing her father’s approach to parenting, Julie described Michael as a superb parent because he did not stoop to “ruining” her life. In addition, Julie mentioned that her father was planning on buying her a car. She stated that her father would talk with her and not carry out “ridiculous, over-the-top consequences for trivial, normal teenage mishaps.”

 

Treatment tips

Step one: The first step is to ask yourself if you possess the skills and advanced training to work with families engaged in transition and ongoing conflict. If not, that is OK. This is a good time to seek referrals from colleagues who are comfortable with court-connected work.

Step two: When working with parents who are separated, divorced or are in the middle of a child-custody evaluation, counselors should request a copy of the court orders prior to starting treatment with their children. Counselors should be aware that some parents “therapist shop” and are actively looking for a counselor who will tell them what they want to hear, not necessarily what is helpful. Some potential clients are searching for a counselor to align with them and join in with them about how awful their ex-spouse is. Counselors should keep in mind that failure to contact the child’s other parent may introduce a host of issues (for example, board complaints), especially if the parent seeking treatment for the child does not have the right to do so per court order. Also make certain to obtain all necessary releases before conversing with any previous counselors who have worked with the family members.

Step three: Counselors working with parents who are irrationally rejected by their children need to be well-versed in the literature. Failing to recognize and treat alienated children and their parents prolongs emotional damage for the child and can harm the entire family system.

Step four: As a counselor, you must know who the client is. Are you working with the child, the child and the parent(s), or one/both of the parents? It is vital to understand how the client ended up in your office. Additionally, your role must be clear. Are you working as a court-appointed counselor or a court-involved counselor? Recognize that in cases of child alienation, other parties — such as other counselors, attorneys or parenting coordinators — are often involved.

Step five: Know your definitions, but do not diminish your clients by labeling them. When conversing with other professionals, it is acceptable to refer to the parent to whom the child aligns as the “favored” parent. The “rejected” parent (or “target” parent) is the parent whom the child rejects or refuses to spend time with. When working with the courts, and depending on their jurisdiction, counselors may want to use behavioral descriptions, not diagnostic labels.

Counselors should remember to focus on behaviors that can be described. Although it is acceptable to discuss the concept of triangulation, gatekeeping, pathological alignment or irrational alienation with your colleagues, it is not helpful to use these terms with clients.

Step six: Do not diagnose if you have not actually met the client or witnessed the parent-child interactions. For instance, if one parent seeks your services and reports that the other parent is alienating the child and is a narcissist and/or borderline, you cannot diagnose that other parent as borderline because you have not met with or witnessed that parent.

 

Therapeutic fallacies

Richard Warshak is a world-renowned expert on parental alienation. He has written countless peer-reviewed publications on custody disputes, divorce, alienated children and stepfamilies, and has developed educational materials. Warshak recently provided strategies that can guide counselors in working with this difficult parent-child dynamic. According to a study he published earlier this year (see http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2015-27699-001/), several fallacies can compromise the therapeutic process.

  • Children never unreasonably reject the parent with whom they spend the most time. The first fallacy counselors should recognize is that more time does not necessarily equal quality time. Using rapid clinical judgment, it is easy to conclude that a child identifies with the parent whom he or she sees the most. If counselors do not recognize this fallacy, they may determine that the parent must have done something that warranted poor treatment by the child. This line of thinking contributes to additional emotional distress. In turn, under this assumption, counselors can go on the lookout for flaws within the rejected parent to substantiate their beliefs. Counselors should be aware that when a child spends time with the nonresidential parent, that parent could be using that limited time to teach the child to disrespect and disobey the custodial parent. To offset this fallacy, counselors must stop thinking in unidimensional terms.
  • Children never unreasonably reject mothers. According to Warshak’s study, “Those who believe mothers cannot be the victims of their children’s irrational rejection are predisposed to believe that children who reject their mothers have good reason for doing so.” He advises that counselors should keep an open mind about both parents and consider that mothers may be rejected without good reason.
  • Each parent contributes equally to a child’s alienation. Counselors should not generalize that both parents are always equally at fault for a child’s alienation. Counselors would not place equal blame for intimate partner violence on the victim. Likewise, it is not helpful to equally blame both parents for a child’s unwarranted rejection when one parent may be instigating the child’s actions and attitudes.

One bias that comes into play is repetition bias. Those working in the field are permeated with the term “high conflict” and may deem that parental alienation is synonymous with that term. As described by Warshak, the term high conflict “implies joint responsibility for generating conflict.”

In my practice, I developed a nuanced view. There are times when both parents contribute to and could benefit from parenting education or family therapy. However, in the case of Sarah and Michael, Michael openly defied the court’s orders, ultimately refusing to let Sarah spend time with their daughter. He also denigrated Sarah in front of the child. I would not be practicing the concept of “non-maleficence” when working with Sarah if I were to suggest that she was at fault. Demanding more of Sarah and blaming her only adds insult to injury.

As Warshak points out, “When the rejected parent’s behavior is inaccurately assumed to be a major factor in the children’s alienation, therapy proceeds in unproductive directions.” At this point, counselors may wonder, “What am I to do?” A counselor should remain neutral and avoid making unwarranted assumptions.

  • Alienation is a child’s transient, short-lived response to the parents’ separation. This fallacy is damaging because child alienation may be deemed to be a normal byproduct of divorce that will resolve on its own. Prior to going into private practice, I co-led a support group for adults who had lost all contact with their children. These cases were not due to a background of abuse or neglect; instead, many involved a contentious divorce.

Unfortunately, some counselors espouse the notion that the child should decide when to see the rejected parent and suggest that over time, the child will come around. In some cases, the child may re-establish a relationship with the parent. However, not all children reconnect. And even if they do, parents cannot reclaim lost time.

Counselors understand that they should practice within the scope of their license. In many states, counselors are prohibited from making access or possession determinations. Counselors do not have the right to supersede a court order and tell an alienated child that he or she does not have to spend time with the rejected parent. Again, it is necessary to obtain a copy of the client’s current court orders prior to starting counseling.

Another practice tip is that counselors should encourage the parent who is the target of unwarranted rejection to remain in constant contact with his or her children. Counselors can also aid parents in knowing and understanding the stages of development and helping parents to formulate proper responses to a child’s verbal insults.

  • Rejecting a parent is a healthy short-term coping mechanism. Counselors can identify this fallacy by reflecting on common biases, many which are covered in counseling programs. Counselors must be cautious about the bias of wishful thinking because it provides a false hope to clients. As Warshak (2015) explains, “Counselors who believe that rejection of a parent is a healthy adaptation encourage parents to accept the children’s negativity until the children feel ready to discard it.” He goes on to say that “this is especially true when therapists assume that the alienation is destined to be short-lived.” Although we have specialized training as counselors, it is important to remember that we cannot predict future outcomes.

Another way to think about parental rejection is to consider whether the parents would ignore their child refusing to speak to one of the parents if the whole family still resided together. Understandably, most would find this unacceptable.

  • Alienated adolescents’ stated preferences should dominate decisions. This fallacy can be offset by using analytical thinking and a basic understanding of brain development. Many adolescents know more about adult matters than we would want them to know. Regardless, adolescents are not adults and should not make adult decisions. Adolescents are prone to peer pressure and are in the process of discovering their identity. Most adults cannot imagine asking if an adolescent would like to attend school. As Warshak writes, “Adolescents’ vulnerability to external influence is why parents are wise to worry about the company their teenagers keep.”

Counselors can help rejected parents to not personalize it when a teenager has a soccer game and prefers to forego parent-child time. Or when working with a favored parent who claims the child does not enjoy time with the target parent, counselors can point out that some adolescents do not enjoy their homework, but they are expected to do it anyway.

 

Treatment goals and tips

When working with the child:

  • Promote a healthy relationship with both parents.
  • Help the child to correct cognitive distortions.
  • Work with the child to maintain a balanced view of both parents.
  • Improve the child’s critical thinking skills.
  • Recognize when a child’s behavior is incongruent from one setting to the next.
  • Augment the child’s coping skills.

When working with the rejected parent:

  • Recognize that the parent may feel misunderstood.
  • Work with the parent not to counter-reject the child.
  • Be aware of avoidance and passivity; the parent may want to escape the poor treatment of the ex-spouse and the child by avoiding the problem altogether.

When working with the favored parent:

  • Recognize there may be a role reversal. The child may be meeting the emotional needs of the parent. Help the parent recognize his or her role as a parent and encourage the parent to engage in adult relationships to find emotional support.
  • Keep an eye open for enmeshment. What might initially appear as a healthy parent-child relationship could be extremely unhealthy. For instance, there may be a lack of community or family support.
  • Recognize that children generally benefit from the involvement of parents, absence abuse or neglect. Realize that some rejected parents may have personality disorders and continue to instigate court hearings or defy court orders.

 

The do’s and don’ts

• Do not recommend a change in custody if one parent is behaving badly. Custody reversal may be necessary in some cases, but it is not the role of the counselor to make that determination.

• Do not align with one parent over the other.

• Do cooperate with parenting coordinators and the courts.

• Do recognize that parents in litigation are likely to be working toward an adult-oriented outcome — namely to prevail in court.

• Do consider a variety of explanations when working with a child or teenager who irrationally rejects a parent.

• Do not discard information that is inconsistent with the counselor’s viewpoint.

 

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Monika Logan is a licensed professional counselor living in Dallas who specializes in troubled parent-child relationships and sexual behavior problems. In addition to maintaining a private practice and doing court-connected work, she recently developed a program to help youth in the criminal justice system maintain boundaries both offline and online and stay connected with their families. Contact her at mlogan@texaspcs.org.

 

Behind the Book: Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools

By Bethany Bray November 2, 2015

One of the many reasons solution-focused counseling is a good fit for school settings is because it’s a client-directed approach, says John Murphy, a longtime school psychologist and author of Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools.

School counselors often find the bulk of their time consumed with noncounseling tasks. When they Branding-Box-Solutionare able to meet with a student, using a solution-focused approach provides a customizable way to forge a therapeutic bond with the young person in a short amount of time.

“The simple and practical premise of solution-focused counseling – find what works and do more of it – is one of its most appealing features for school practitioners,” Murphy writes in the book’s conclusion. “This does not mean, however, that it is easy to do. Solution-focused work requires careful attention to language, client feedback, relationship building and other therapeutic nuances and skills. Mastery of these skills requires patience and practice. If your experience is anything like mine, however, it is well worth the effort.”

Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools was originally released in 1997; the American Counseling Association published a third edition of Murphy’s book earlier this year.

 

Q+A: John Murphy on Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools

In the book’s introduction, you write “schools are not set up to accommodate counseling.” Can you elaborate on what you mean by that?

This is not a criticism, merely an observation that the main purpose of schools is to teach reading, writing, math and other important academic skills. Unlike mental health centers and private practice settings where counseling is the main focus and the physical setting reflects that focus, school settings present some unique challenges for counselors.

These challenges include working around students’ and teachers’ busy class schedules, safeguarding client confidentiality and conducting “counseling sessions” whenever and wherever you can — in the lunchroom, on the playground, talking with a parent by phone or walking alongside a student or teacher in the hallway. This requires a lot of flexibility on the part of school practitioners.

But let’s not forget that there are advantages to school-based counseling as well. In addition to offering instant access to students and teachers, schools provide a natural and familiar setting for students and parents who might otherwise have to leave their community and travel long distances to receive services. For these reasons, and the fact that we know more than we ever have about helping people change, I ended the new edition of Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools by stating that there has never been a better time to be a school-based counselor.

 

From your perspective, what makes a solution-focused approach effective in helping elementary through high school students? How is it a “good fit”?

For starters, solution-focused counseling (SFC) is a clear and practical approach that makes sense to students, caregivers and counselors. Research tells us that people are more likely to benefit from counseling approaches that make sense to them, that respect their input and goals, and that customize counseling to them rather than requiring them to conform to the counselor’s preferred methods. SFC meets all of these criteria, which explains why it is effective with students of all ages.

Although solution-focused counselors validate problem-related experiences and struggles, they gently invite students to take action instead of spending a lot of time analyzing the problem. The “less talk, more action” nature of SFC seems to appeal to students as well as school counselors, who have very little time to do counseling in the first place.

Another reason SFC works with students is because it grabs their attention as “something different” rather than more of the same. Most students with school problems are well accustomed to problem-focused conversations with adults. These well-intentioned conversations emphasize what is wrong with students, with little or no attention to what they are doing well, which may include coping with a problem or preventing it from getting worse. In contrast, solution-focused conversations seek out students’ strengths and resources and explore how these assets could be applied toward solutions. In my experience, conversations that recognize and build on what is right and working with students engage their participation more effectively than “more of the same,” problem-saturated discussions.

The solution-focused approach fits with school counselors as well. In teaching classes and workshops throughout the U.S. and overseas, counselors often tell me that the solution-focused emphasis on “doing what works” as quickly as possible is more practical than cumbersome, time-consuming approaches that don’t fit well for schools and school problems. Building on students’ strengths also appeals to counselors’ desire to empower, energize and encourage people. The fact that solution-focused counseling accommodates a variety of cultural backgrounds and life experiences is another important feature in today’s increasingly diverse world. Most people, including myself, signed up for this business to lift people up, and SFC fits nicely with this goal.

 

What prompted you to do a third edition of this book? What’s new and different in this edition?

Though many of the basic ideas and techniques of SFC have been carried over from previous editions, several aspects of my approach to SFC have changed since the previously published second edition in 2008. Research continues to clarify specific elements of effective counseling, all of which are incorporated into the new edition of Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools. These elements include the importance of building a strong counselor-client alliance and of collecting ongoing client feedback.

The third edition has new chapters on topics such as the restrictive influence of problems and practical strategies for developing “goals that matter,” as well as additional practice exercises at the end of each chapter and a widely expanded chapter on innovative ways to use solution-focused strategies in group counseling, classroom teaching, peer helping programs, parent education, consultation with parents and teachers, systems-level change and referral forms. I also included new appendices with examples of solution-focused checklists and referral forms, therapeutic letters to students of all ages, scripts for introducing client feedback tools and handy crib sheets for conducting SFC sessions.

 

What is a main takeaway you want counselors of all types, including nonschool counselors, to know about the importance of solution-focused counseling in school settings?

The main takeaway is that the ideas and techniques in this book are “value added.” A value-added technique adds value and impact to whatever it is combined with, making everything else you do with clients more effective. Examples of value-added techniques include obtaining client feedback, giving compliments, validating students’ experiences and exploring exceptions to the problem.

The beauty of these techniques is that there are no risks or downsides to using them. The worst thing that can happen is that the person does not respond and nothing changes, at which point you simply move on to something else. Even then, value-added techniques can enhance the alliance by conveying respect for people’s input, wisdom and capability. The bottom line is this: You can use the techniques in this book regardless of your theoretical orientation and regardless of whether or not you consider yourself a solution-focused practitioner.

 

You were a public school teacher and school psychologist for many years. How have you seen the role of school counselor/psychologist change since then?

I haven’t seen much of a change in the roles of most school counselors or school psychologists, especially when it comes to the small amount of time they spend in intervention-related activities such as individual and group counseling, parent/teacher consultation and schoolwide prevention/intervention programs. I am not criticizing the professionals who fill these roles, many of whom would like to spend more time on such activities. School counselors and psychologists often tell me that they are pulled in so many different directions and saddled with certain responsibilities that leave little time for counseling and other intervention-related services. Unfortunately, the situation will not change in a big way if schools continue to rely exclusively on outside professionals and agencies to provide the bulk of school-based counseling and intervention services.

 

What advice would you give to a new professional who is starting a career as a school counselor?

Find ways to stay active, involved and hopeful about your profession and the people you serve. Effective practitioners are continually engaged in professional learning and development. They also find ways to sustain their hope in the midst of the ongoing problems and challenges they face on a daily basis. I would also advise them to make sure that their job description and role includes sufficient time for counseling and intervention activities.

 

Besides your book, what resources would you recommend for school counselors who would like to learn more about solution-focused counseling?

There are many more resources on solution-focused counseling with young people and schools than there were when I wrote the book’s first edition almost 25 years ago. An Internet search of “solution-focused counseling in schools” will yield various articles and chapters. The Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association’s website (sfbta.org) contains general information about SFBT. I also maintain a website on solution-focused and strengths-based practices in schools that has a variety of links and additional information about solution-focused practice in schools, workshop offerings on the topic and other related topics (drjohnmurphy.com).

 

 

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Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools is available from the American Counseling Association bookstore at counseling.org/publications/bookstore or by calling 800-422-2648 x 222

 

For more insights from Murphy, see these downloadable VISTAS articles from ACA:

Solution-Focused Counseling in Schools

Building School Solutions From Students Natural Resources

Student-Driven Interviewing Practical Strategies for Involving Students in School Solutions

 

Also, see ACA’s podcast with Murphy on solution-focused school counseling: bit.ly/1OSO26v

 

 

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About the author

John J. Murphy is a licensed psychologist and professor of psychology and counseling at the University of Central Arkansas. Previously, he was a public school teacher and school psychologist.

 

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Bethany Bray is a staff writer for Counseling Today. Contact her at bbray@counseling.org

 

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